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Western Philosophy

Western Philosophy

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Metacognition Metacognition is defined as "cognition about cognition", or "knowing about knowing". It comes from the root word "meta", meaning beyond.[1] It can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving.[1] There are generally two components of metacognition: knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition.[2] Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form of metacognition.[3] Differences in metacognitive processing across cultures have not been widely studied, but could provide better outcomes in cross-cultural learning between teachers and students.[4] Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that metacognition is used as a survival tool, which would make metacognition the same across cultures.[4] Writings on metacognition can be traced back at least as far as De Anima and the Parva Naturalia of the Greek philosopher Aristotle.[5] Definitions[edit] [edit]

An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments A reader recently wrote in asking if I could share a bit about the process of putting the book together and talk about how the project started. Certainly. I go on two solitary walks every day. There is a small park off the Embarcadero that is tucked away in a quiet spot. It has a pleasant stream flowing through it and an unassuming bench beside that stream. I have made walking to that frail bench a ritual, and the half an hour or so spent daydreaming on it amid the cool San Francisco breeze, an article of faith.

Gut Feelings Have you ever had a "gut feeling" about something that's later turned out to be true? Have you ever felt "open-hearted"? Ever encountered a situation that's made you "hot under the collar"? Or a person who is "a pain in the neck"? Believe it or not these seemingly illogical expressions have become part of the English language because they are unconscious recognitions of a deeper knowledge within all of us. A knowledge of a subtle energy system of Chakras and Channels and the way that they work to produce many of the odd sensations and intuitions that all of us experience from time to time.

Wisdom & Quotes by Confucius » Wisdom of the Ancient Sages « Articles & Wisdom Confucius 551-479 BC Chinese Philosopher Famous Quotes "When we see men of worth, we should think of equaling them; when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examine ourselves." "Things that are done, it is needless to speak about... things that are past, it is needless to blame." "The superior man...does not set his mind either for anything, or against anything; what is right he will follow."

Supervenience The upper levels on this chart can be considered to supervene on the lower levels. In philosophy, supervenience is an ontological relation that is used to describe cases where (roughly speaking) the lower-level properties of a system determine its higher level properties. Some philosophers hold that the world is structured in to a kind of hierarchy of properties, where the higher level properties supervene on the lower level properties. According to this type of view, social properties supervene on psychological properties, psychological properties supervene on biological properties, biological properties supervene on chemical properties, etc. That is, the chemical properties of the world determine a distribution of biological properties, those biological properties determine a distribution of psychological properties, and so forth. It is useful to know both when supervenience does and does not obtain.

We Are a Cosmic Accident: Alan Lightman on Dark Energy, the Multiverse, and Why We Exist by Maria Popova How we drew the one we have from the zillions of possible universes in the cosmic lottery hat. Questions like why our world exists and what nothing is have occupied minds great and ordinary since the dawn of humanity, and yet for all our scientific progress, they continue to do so, yielding only hypotheses rather than concrete answers. But there is something immutably heartening in the difference between the primitive hypotheses of myth, folklore and religion, which handed off such mysteries to various deities and the occasional white-bearded man, and the increasingly educated guesses of modern science.

Liespotting 10 Ways Liars Use Words To Obscure the Truth Lying is hard work. Daunting as it may seem to keep track of all the possible signs of deception—facial cues, gestures, leg movements—think of how difficult it is to be the deceiver. To tell a convincing lie, you must keep all the details of your story straight. And not only that, you must sell it with appropriate body language, while trying to avoid leaking any emotional clues that would give the lie away. It’s so difficult to keep a false story going that you’d think it would be easy to catch a liar in the act. The Socratic Method The Socratic Method:Teaching by Asking Instead of by Tellingby Rick Garlikov The following is a transcript of a teaching experiment, using the Socratic method, with a regular third grade class in a suburban elementary school. I present my perspective and views on the session, and on the Socratic method as a teaching tool, following the transcript. The class was conducted on a Friday afternoon beginning at 1:30, late in May, with about two weeks left in the school year. This time was purposely chosen as one of the most difficult times to entice and hold these children's concentration about a somewhat complex intellectual matter. The point was to demonstrate the power of the Socratic method for both teaching and also for getting students involved and excited about the material being taught.

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