Skepticism Skepticism or scepticism (see American and British English spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts, or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere. Philosophical skepticism is an overall approach that requires all information to be well supported by evidence. Classical philosophical skepticism derives from the 'Skeptikoi', a school who "asserted nothing". Adherents of Pyrrhonism, for instance, suspend judgment in investigations. Skeptics may even doubt the reliability of their own senses. Religious skepticism, on the other hand, is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)". Definition In ordinary usage, skepticism (US) or scepticism (UK) (Greek: 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to think, to look about, to consider; see also spelling differences) refers to: Philosophical skepticism Scientific skepticism Media
Methodism The Methodist movement is a group of historically-related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were also significant leaders in the movement. It originated as a revival within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate Church following Wesley's death. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy,[a] but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organized religion at that time. Origins John Wesley Charles Wesley George Whitefield The Methodist revival originated in Epworth, Lincolnshire, England. People are all, by nature, "dead in sin," and, consequently, "children of wrath." Methodist preachers were notorious for their enthusiastic sermons and often accused of fanaticism. Theology Liturgy A United Methodist minister consecrating communion
Apatheism Apatheism (/ˌæpəˈθiːɪzəm/ a portmanteau of apathy and theism/atheism), also known as pragmatic atheism or (critically) as practical atheism, is acting with apathy, disregard, or lack of interest towards belief or disbelief in a deity. Apatheism describes the manner of acting towards a belief or lack of a belief in a deity, so it applies to both theism and atheism. An apatheist is also someone who is not interested in accepting or denying any claims that gods exist or do not exist. In other words, an apatheist is someone who considers the question of the existence of gods as neither meaningful nor relevant to their life. Apathetic agnosticism (also called pragmatic agnosticism) claims that no amount of debate can prove or disprove the existence of one or more deities, and if one or more deities exist, they do not appear to be concerned about the fate of humans. Apatheists hold that if it were possible to prove that God does or does not exist, their behavior would not change.
Agnostizismus Agnostizismus (latinisierte Form von griechisch ἀγνωστικισμός a-gnōstikismós von altgriechisch ἀγνῶσις a-gnō̂sis, deutsch ‚ohne Wissen‘, ‚ohne Erkenntnis‘) ist die philosophische Ansicht, dass Annahmen – insbesondere theologische, die die Existenz oder Nichtexistenz einer höheren Instanz, beispielsweise eines Gottes, betreffen – ungeklärt oder nicht klärbar sind. Vertreter des Agnostizismus werden als Agnostiker bezeichnet. Agnostizismus ist eine Weltanschauung, die insbesondere die prinzipielle Begrenztheit menschlichen Wissens, Verstehens und Begreifens betont. Die Möglichkeit der Existenz transzendenter Wesen oder Prinzipien wird nicht bestritten. Agnostizismus ist sowohl mit Theismus als auch mit Atheismus vereinbar, da der Glaube an Gott und die Ablehnung von Gott möglich ist, selbst wenn die Gewissheit seiner Existenz oder Inexistenz fehlt. Ebenso ist die Auffassung, wonach atheistische Thesen wahrscheinlicher sind als theistische, mit dem Agnostizismus vereinbar. Im 20.
Deism Deism ( i/ˈdiː.ɪzəm/ or /ˈdeɪ.ɪzəm/) is the belief that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a Creator, accompanied with the rejection of revelation and authority as a source of religious knowledge. Deism gained prominence in the 17th and 18th centuries during the Age of Enlightenment—especially in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States—among intellectuals raised as Christians who believed in one god, but found fault with organized religion and did not believe in supernatural events such as miracles, the inerrancy of scriptures, or the Trinity. Deism is derived from deus, the Latin word for god. Overview Deism is a theological position concerning the relationship between "the Creator" and the natural world. The words deism and theism are both derived from words for god: the former from Latin deus, the latter from Greek theós (θεός). Features of deism Critical elements of deist thought included:
Rhetoric Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments. The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical", from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker", related to ῥῆμα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying", and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erō), "say, speak". Uses of rhetoric Scope of rhetoric Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed.
Atheism Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists. The term "atheism" originated from the Greek ἄθεος (atheos), meaning "without god(s)", used as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, and subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope. The first individuals to identify themselves using the word "atheist" lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to social and historical approaches. Definitions and distinctions Range Concepts
Monotheism Monotheism characterizes the traditions of Atenism, Babism, the Bahá'í Faith, Cao Dai (Caodaiism), Cheondoism (Cheondogyo), Christianity, Deism, Eckankar, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism, Ravidassia religion, Seicho no Ie, Shaivism, Sikhism, Tenrikyo (Tenriism), Vaishnavism, and Zoroastrianism and elements of the belief are discernible in numerous other religions. Origin and development The word monotheism comes from the Greek μόνος (monos) meaning "single" and θεός (theos) meaning "god". The English term was first used by Henry More (1614–1687). Monolatrism can be a stage in the development of monotheism from polytheism. In Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda appears as a supreme and transcendental deity. Currents of monism or monotheism emerge in Vedic India earlier, chiefly with worship of Lord Krishna, which is full-fledged monotheism, but also with e.g. the Nasadiya Sukta. More detailed definitions Abrahamic religions Judaism God, the Cause of all, is one.
Chaos magic The chaosphere is a popular symbol of chaos magic. Many variants exist. For more, see Symbol of Chaos. General principles Chaos magicians are often seen by other occultists as dangerous or worrisome revolutionaries. History Origins and creation This magical discipline was first formulated in West Yorkshire, England in the 1970s. A meeting between Peter J. Influences Following Spare's death, magicians continued to experiment outside of traditional magical orders. Early days The first edition of Liber Null does not include the term "chaos magic", but only refers to magic or "the magic art" in general. Texts from this period consistently claim to state principles universal to magic, as opposed to a new specific style or tradition of magic, and describe their innovations as efforts to rid magic of superstitious and religious ideas. Chaos came to be part of this movement defined as "the 'thing' responsible for the origin and continued action of events[...].
"Great Quotes" ____________________________________________________________________ “A government that is big enough to give you all you want is big enough to take it all away.” — Barry Goldwater ____________________________________________________________________ “Now more than ever before, the people are responsible for the character of their Congress. If that body be ignorant, reckless and corrupt, it is because the people tolerate ignorance, recklessness and corruption. Solipsism Solipsism ( i/ˈsɒlɨpsɪzəm/; from Latin solus, meaning "alone", and ipse, meaning "self") is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological position, solipsism holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure; the external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist outside the mind. As a metaphysical position, solipsism goes further to the conclusion that the world and other minds do not exist. Varieties There are varying degrees of solipsism that parallel the varying degrees of serious skepticism.  Epistemological solipsism Epistemological solipsism is the variety of idealism according to which only the directly accessible mental contents of the solipsistic philosopher can be known. Methodological solipsism Methodological solipsism may be a sort of weak agnostic (meaning "missing knowledge") solipsism. Main points See also: Solipsism: Relation to other ideas (below) History
Seventh-day Adventist Church The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming (advent) of Jesus Christ. The denomination grew out of the Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century and was formally established in 1863. Among its founders was Ellen G. White, whose extensive writings are still held in high regard by the church today. Much of the theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church corresponds to Protestant Christian teachings such as the Trinity and the infallibility of Scripture. The world church is governed by a General Conference, with smaller regions administered by divisions, union conferences and local conferences. History Development of Sabbatarianism Organization and recognition Beliefs Theological spectrum Culture and practices
Henotheism Henotheism (Greek εἷς θεός heis theos "one god") is the belief in and worship of a single God while accepting the existence or possible existence of other deities that may also be worshipped. The term was originally coined by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775–1854) to depict early stages of monotheism. Max Müller (1823–1900), a German philologist and orientalist, brought the term into common usage. Müller made the term central to his criticism of Western theological and religious exceptionalism (relative to Eastern religions), focusing on a cultural dogma which held "monotheism" to be both fundamentally well-defined and inherently superior to differing conceptions of God. Definition and terminology Henotheism is closely related to the theistic concept of monolatry, which is also the worship of one god among many. Hinduism The term "henotheism" was first coined to describe the theology of Rigvedic religion. Hellenistic religion See also References