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Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homine, 1662. Reductionism strongly reflects a certain perspective on causality. In a reductionist framework, the phenomena that can be explained completely in terms of relations between other more fundamental phenomena, are called epiphenomena. Reductionism does not preclude the existence of what might be called emergent phenomena, but it does imply the ability to understand those phenomena completely in terms of the processes from which they are composed. Religious reductionism generally attempts to explain religion by boiling it down to certain nonreligious causes. Types[edit] Richard H. Theoretical reductionism[edit] Theoretical reduction is the process by which one theory absorbs another. Methodological reductionism[edit] Methodological reductionism is the position that the best scientific strategy is to attempt to reduce explanations to the smallest possible entities. Ontological reductionism[edit] Related:  The problems with philosophy

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (1995; second edition 2005) is a reference work in philosophy edited by Ted Honderich and published by Oxford University Press. The second edition included some 300 new entries. The new edition has over 2,200 entries and 291 contributors. Publication history[edit] Honderich, Ted (ed.). References[edit] Spurrett, David (Nov 1996). External links[edit] The OUP page for the Oxford Companion to Philosophy second edition Statement Statement or statements may refer to: Equality From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search Equality may refer to: Law and Society[edit] Mathematics[edit] Logic[edit] Logical equality Places[edit] See also[edit]

Ted Honderich Ted Honderich (born 30 January 1933) is a Canadian-born British philosopher, Grote Professor Emeritus of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic, University College London.[1] His work has been mainly about five things: consciousness and mind, including the consciousness–brain relation; right and wrong in the contemporary world particularly with democracy, terrorism and war; advocacy of the Principle of Humanity; determinism and freedom; particular problems in logical analysis and metaphysics; the supposed justification of punishment by the state; the political tradition of conservatism. He has given lectures and talks in British, continental European, Irish, American, Canadian, Asian, Russian, and African universities. Biography[edit] Honderich was born Edgar Dawn Ross Honderich on 30 January 1933 in Baden, Ontario, Canada. His papers in philosophical journals have been published in three volumes by Edinburgh University Press. Consciousness[edit] Determinism and freedom[edit] Punishment[edit]

Symbol A red octagon symbolizes "stop" even without the word. A symbol is an object that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action, or material entity. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, or visual images and are used to convey ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Etymology[edit] The word derives from the Greek symbolon meaning token or watchword. Definitions[edit] In considering the effect of a symbol on the psyche, in his seminal essay The Symbol without Meaning Joseph Campbell proposes the following definition: A symbol is an energy evoking, and directing, agent.[2] Later, expanding on what he means by this definition Campbell says: "a symbol, like everything else, shows a double aspect. Heinrich Zimmer gives a concise overview of the nature, and perennial relevance, of symbols. Symbols and semiotics[edit] Paul Tillich[edit]

Determinism Determinism is the philosophical position that for every event, including human action, there exist conditions that could cause no other event. "There are many determinisms, depending upon what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event."[1] Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations. Some forms of determinism can be empirically tested with ideas from physics and the philosophy of physics. Other debates often concern the scope of determined systems, with some maintaining that the entire universe is a single determinate system and others identifying other more limited determinate systems (or multiverse). Varieties[edit] Below appear some of the more common viewpoints meant by, or confused with "determinism". Many philosophical theories of determinism frame themselves with the idea that reality follows a sort of predetermined path Philosophical connections[edit] History[edit]

Formal language Structure of a syntactically well-formed, although nonsensical, English sentence (historical example from Chomsky 1957). History[edit] The first formal language is thought to be the one used by Gottlob Frege in his Begriffsschrift (1879), literally meaning "concept writing", and which Frege described as a "formal language of pure thought. Axel Thue's early semi-Thue system, which can be used for rewriting strings, was influential on formal grammars. Words over an alphabet[edit] In some applications, especially in logic, the alphabet is also known as the vocabulary and words are known as formulas or sentences; this breaks the letter/word metaphor and replaces it by a word/sentence metaphor. Definition[edit] A formal language L over an alphabet Σ is a subset of Σ*, that is, a set of words over that alphabet. In computer science and mathematics, which do not usually deal with natural languages, the adjective "formal" is often omitted as redundant. Examples[edit] Constructions[edit] and [edit] A.

Indeterminism Indeterminism is the concept that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically (cf. causality) by prior events. It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in the form of metaphysical libertarianism. In science, most specifically quantum theory in physics, indeterminism is the belief that no event is certain and the entire outcome of anything is a probability. Causation without determinism[edit] A number of philosophers have argued that lack of determinism does not entail absence of causation. Necessary but insufficient causation[edit] Indeterminists do not have to deny that causes exist. If x is a necessary cause of y; then the presence of y necessarily implies that x preceded it. If x is a sufficient cause of y, then the presence of x necessarily implies the presence of y. Probabilistic causation[edit] Philosophy[edit] Aristotle[edit] John D.

Libertarianism Traditionally, libertarianism was a term for a form of left-wing politics; such left-libertarian ideologies seek to abolish capitalism and private ownership of the means of production, or else to restrict their purview or effects, in favor of common or cooperative ownership and management, viewing private property as a barrier to freedom and liberty.[6][7][8][9] In the United States, modern right-libertarian ideologies, such as minarchism and anarcho-capitalism, co-opted the term in the mid-20th century to instead advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights, such as in land, infrastructure, and natural resources.[10][11][12] Etymology[edit] The 17 August 1860 edition of Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social, a libertarian communist publication in New York In the mid-1890s, Sébastien Faure began publishing a new Le Libertaire while France's Third Republic enacted the lois scélérates ("villainous laws"), which banned anarchist publications in France.

Semantics of logic Overview[edit] The truth conditions of various sentences we may encounter in arguments will depend upon their meaning, and so logicians cannot completely avoid the need to provide some treatment of the meaning of these sentences. The semantics of logic refers to the approaches that logicians have introduced to understand and determine that part of meaning in which they are interested; the logician traditionally is not interested in the sentence as uttered but in the proposition, an idealised sentence suitable for logical manipulation.[citation needed] The main modern approaches to semantics for formal languages are the following: See also[edit] References[edit] Jaakko Hintikka (2007), Socratic Epistemology: Explorations of Knowledge-Seeking by Questioning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Ilkka Niiniluoto (1999), Critical Scientific Realism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Incompatibilism Incompatibilists agree that determinism leaves no room for free will. As a result, they reject one or both. Incompatibilism is the view that a deterministic universe is completely at odds with the notion that persons have a free will; that there is a dichotomy between determinism and free will where philosophers must choose one or the other. This view is pursued in at least three ways: libertarians deny that the universe is deterministic, the hard determinists deny that any free will exists, and pessimistic incompatibilists (hard indeterminists) deny both that the universe is determined and that free will exists. Incompatibilism is contrasted with compatibilism, which rejects the determinism/free will dichotomy. Libertarianism[edit] One famous proponent of this view was Lucretius, who asserted that the free will arises out of the random, chaotic movements of atoms, called "clinamen". Hard determinism[edit] William James said that philosophers (and scientists) have an "antipathy to chance

Logical connective The most common logical connectives are binary connectives (also called dyadic connectives) which join two sentences which can be thought of as the function's operands. Also commonly, negation is considered to be a unary connective. A logical connective is similar to but not equivalent to a conditional operator. [1] In language[edit] Natural language[edit] A: Jack went up the hill. B: Jill went up the hill. C: Jack went up the hill and Jill went up the hill. D: Jack went up the hill so Jill went up the hill. The words and and so are grammatical conjunctions joining the sentences (A) and (B) to form the compound sentences (C) and (D). Various English words and word pairs express logical connectives, and some of them are synonymous. The word "not" (negation) and the phrases "it is false that" (negation) and "it is not the case that" (negation) also express a logical connective – even though they are applied to a single statement, and do not connect two statements. Formal languages[edit] , and .

Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (widely abbreviated and cited as TLP) (Latin for Logical Philosophical Treatise or Treatise on Logic and Philosophy) is the only book-length philosophical work by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein that was published during his lifetime. The project had a broad goal: to identify the relationship between language and reality and to define the limits of science.[1] It is recognized by philosophers as a significant philosophical work of the twentieth century. G. E. Wittgenstein wrote the notes for the Tractatus while he was a soldier during World War I and completed it during a military leave in the summer of 1918.[3] It was first published in German in 1921 as Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung. The Tractatus employs an austere and succinct literary style. Wittgenstein's later works, notably the posthumously published Philosophical Investigations, criticised many of his earlier ideas in the Tractatus. Main theses[edit] Proposition 1[edit] , where

Free will Though it is a commonly held intuition that we have free will,[3] it has been widely debated throughout history not only whether that is true, but even how to define the concept of free will.[4] How exactly must the will be free, what exactly must the will be free from, in order for us to have free will? Historically, the constraint of dominant concern has been determinism of some variety (such as logical, nomological, or theological), so the two most prominent common positions are named incompatibilist or compatibilist for the relation they hold to exist between free will and determinism. In Western philosophy[edit] The underlying issue is: Do we have some control over our actions, and if so, what sort of control, and to what extent? On one hand, humans have a strong sense of freedom, which leads us to believe that we have free will.[13][14] On the other hand, an intuitive feeling of free will could be mistaken.[15][16] Incompatibilism[edit] Using T, F for "true" and "false" and ? [edit]

Holism is sometimes seen as being the opposite of reductionism. Reductionism argues that the way of solving a large problem is to define it as a series of smaller problems which may be solved separately and the sum of the solutions will represent the solution of the larger problem. Holism asserts that some problems are not amenable to reductionist approaches and these need to be studied or researched in a different way. A holistic orientated researcher will also argue that if a research problem is reduced to smaller problems than a simple summation of the findings of the smaller solutions may not adequately answer the greater or larger problem.

Found in: 2013 - (Remenyi) Case Study Research: The Quick Guide Series by raviii Apr 26