Agnosticism Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims—especially claims about the existence or non-existence of any deity, as well as other religious and metaphysical claims—are unknown or unknowable. According to the philosopher William L. Rowe, in the popular sense, an agnostic is someone who neither believes nor disbelieves in the existence of a deity or deities, whereas a theist and an atheist believe and disbelieve, respectively. Thomas Henry Huxley, an English biologist, coined the word agnostic in 1869. However, earlier thinkers have written works that promoted agnostic points of view. These thinkers include Sanjaya Belatthaputta, a 5th-century BCE Indian philosopher who expressed agnosticism about any afterlife, Protagoras, a 5th-century BCE Greek philosopher was agnostic about the gods. The Nasadiya Sukta in the Rigveda is agnostic about the origin of the universe. Defining agnosticism Thomas Henry Huxley said: Robert G.
Critical thinking Critical thinking is a type of clear, reasoned thinking. According to Beyer (1995) Critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgements. While in the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned and well thought out/judged. The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defines critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action Etymology In the term critical thinking, the word critical, (Grk. κριτικός = kritikos = "critic") derives from the word critic, and identifies the intellectual capacity and the means "of judging", "of judgement", "for judging", and of being "able to discern". Definitions According to the field of inquiry [weasel words], critical thinking is defined as: Skills Procedure
Alternative Considerations of Jonestown & Peoples Temple Positivism Positivism is the philosophy of science that information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge, and that there is valid knowledge (truth) only in this derived knowledge. Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence. Positivism holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected, as is metaphysics and theology. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of western thought, the modern sense of the approach was developed by the philosopher Auguste Comte in the early 19th century. Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so does society. Etymology Overview Antecedents Auguste Comte Antipositivism Main article: antipositivism In historiography
Rhetoric Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments. The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical", from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker", related to ῥῆμα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying", and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erō), "say, speak". Uses of rhetoric Scope of rhetoric Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed.
Debunker A debunker is a person who attempts to expose or discredit claims believed to be false, exaggerated or pretentious. The term is closely associated with skeptical investigation of controversial topics such as U.F.O.s, claimed paranormal phenomena, cryptids, conspiracy theories, alternative medicine, religion, or exploratory or fringe areas of scientific or pseudoscientific research. According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, to "debunk" is defined as: To expose the falseness or hollowness of (a myth, idea, or belief).To reduce the inflated reputation of (someone), esp. by ridicule: "comedy takes delight in debunking heroes". If debunkers are not careful, their communications may backfire – increasing an audience's long-term belief in myths. Etymology The term debunk originated in a 1923 novel Bunk, by American novelist William Woodward (1874–1950), who used it to mean to "take the bunk out of things Backfire effects Notable debunkers Organizations
How to Break Open a Safe? | Safe Talk How to break open a safe is usually a question only thieves and locksmiths think about. Anyone looking at purchasing a safe should be thinking about this question too. No, you won’t be breaking into a safe, but you want to keep the burglars from breaking into yours. Safe burglaries are often depicted in the movies as a simple process that takes seconds and ding the safe is open. Often time’s burglars try to remove the safe to a secure location where they can take their time to force it open. Combination locks are still the number one method of securing a safe even though they have been around a long time. The easiest method for a thief to open a safe is to know the combination. When the combination doesn’t work, then the burglar has to resort to destroying the safe. The safe door can be a weak spot on a safe if it is made of thin metal. Since all metals burn at certain temperatures, torching devices or explosives can be used to get inside a safe.
Fallibilism Fallibilism (from medieval Latin fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical principle that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world, and yet still be justified in holding their incorrect beliefs. In the most commonly used sense of the term, this consists in being open to new evidence that would disprove some previously held position or belief, and in the recognition that "any claim justiﬁed today may need to be revised or withdrawn in light of new evidence, new arguments, and new experiences." This position is taken for granted in the natural sciences. In another sense, it refers to the consciousness of "the degree to which our interpretations, valuations, our practices, and traditions are temporally indexed" and subject to (possibly arbitrary) historical flux and change. Some fallibilists argue that absolute certainty about knowledge is impossible. Moral fallibilism Criticism See also References
Solipsism Solipsism ( i/ˈsɒlɨpsɪzəm/; from Latin solus, meaning "alone", and ipse, meaning "self") is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological position, solipsism holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure; the external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist outside the mind. As a metaphysical position, solipsism goes further to the conclusion that the world and other minds do not exist. Varieties There are varying degrees of solipsism that parallel the varying degrees of serious skepticism.  Epistemological solipsism Epistemological solipsism is the variety of idealism according to which only the directly accessible mental contents of the solipsistic philosopher can be known. Methodological solipsism Methodological solipsism may be a sort of weak agnostic (meaning "missing knowledge") solipsism. Main points See also: Solipsism: Relation to other ideas (below) History
Scientific skepticism Carl Sagan, originator of the expression scientific skepticism Scientific skepticism (also spelled scepticism) is the practice of questioning whether claims are supported by empirical research and have reproducibility, as part of a methodological norm pursuing "the extension of certified knowledge". For example, Robert K. Merton asserts that all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured community scrutiny (see Mertonian norms). About the term and its scope Scientific skepticism is also called rational skepticism, and it is sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry. Scientific skepticism is different from philosophical skepticism, which questions our ability to claim any knowledge about the nature of the world and how we perceive it. Various definitions Scientific skepticism has been defined as: "Skepticism is a provisional approach to claims. "Skepticism is a method of examining claims about the world. Overview History of scientific skepticism
Pragmatism Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870. Pragmatism is a rejection of the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. Instead, pragmatists consider thought to be a product of the interaction between organism and environment. Thus, the function of thought is as an instrument or tool for prediction, action, and problem solving. Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics—such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science—are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes. A few of the various but interrelated positions often characteristic of philosophers working from a pragmatist approach include: Charles Sanders Peirce (and his pragmatic maxim) deserves much of the credit for pragmatism, along with later twentieth century contributors, William James and John Dewey. Pragmatism enjoyed renewed attention after W. Origins
Sophism The term originated from Greek σόφισμα, sophisma, from σοφίζω, sophizo "I am wise"; confer σοφιστής, sophistēs, meaning "wise-ist, one who does wisdom," and σοφός, sophós means "wise man". Etymology The Greek word sophist (sophistēs) derives from the words sophia, and sophos, meaning "wisdom" or “wise” since the time of Homer and was originally used to describe expertise in a particular knowledge or craft. Gradually, however, the word also came to denote general wisdom and especially wisdom about human affairs (for example, in politics, ethics, or household management). This was the meaning ascribed to the Greek Seven Sages of 7th and 6th century BC (such as Solon and Thales), and it was the meaning that appeared in the histories of Herodotus. Richard Martin refers to the seven sages as "performers of political poetry Sophists of ancient Greece Protagoras was one of the most well-known and successful teachers. Gorgias is another well-known Sophist. Modern usage
CRÓNICA SUBTERRÁNEA: Peter Kolosimo -El Partisano Misterioso PETER KOLOSIMOEl Partisano MisteriosoDébora Goldstern© En el gran universo de la Arqueología Misteriosa, Peter Kolosimo ocupa un lugar destacado. Quién fuera uno de los mejores exponentes dentro del género, nació el 15 de Diciembre de 1922, en Módena (Italia) siendo bautizado como Pier Domenico Colosimo. En Civilizaciones del Silencio (1981) encontramos una pequeña biografía: ”Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, muy joven aún, sirvió en las filas del Ejército Alemán –en los carros de combate -. De regreso a Italia, dedicóse al periodismo político. Antes de comentar algunas de las obras del estudioso italiano, debemos retomar la época que originó su producción. Esta especie de revisionismo histórico, escandalizó a los académicos de escuela, que despreciaban estos métodos de formación considerándolo una desviación peligrosa. Junto con No es Terrestre, se deben destacar Tierra Sin Tiempo, Planeta Incógnito y Astronaves en la Prehistoria, que resumen lo mejor de Kolosimo.