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Mereology has been axiomatized in various ways as applications of predicate logic to formal ontology, of which mereology is an important part. A common element of such axiomatizations is the assumption, shared with inclusion, that the part-whole relation orders its universe, meaning that everything is a part of itself (reflexivity), that a part of a part of a whole is itself a part of that whole (transitivity), and that two distinct entities cannot each be a part of the other (antisymmetry). A variant of this axiomatization denies that anything is ever part of itself (irreflexive) while accepting transitivity, from which antisymmetry follows automatically. Standard university texts on logic and mathematics are silent about mereology, which has undoubtedly contributed to its obscurity. History[edit] A.N. In 1930, Henry Leonard completed a Harvard Ph.D. dissertation in philosophy, setting out a formal theory of the part-whole relation. Axioms and primitive notions[edit] The axioms are:

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Meta-ontology Meta-ontology is a term of recent origin first used by Peter van Inwagen in analyzing Willard Van Orman Quine's critique of Rudolf Carnap's metaphysics,[1] where Quine introduced a formal technique for determining the ontological commitments in a comparison of ontologies.[2] Thomas Hofweber, while acknowledging that the use of the term is controversial, suggests that, although strictly construed meta-ontology is a separate metatheory of ontology, the field of ontology can be more broadly construed as containing its metatheory.[3][4] Advocates of the term 'meta-ontology' seek to distinguish 'ontology' (which investigates what there is) from 'meta'-ontology (which investigates what we are asking when we ask what there is).[1][5][6] Amie L. See also[edit] References[edit]

Semantic network Typical standardized semantic networks are expressed as semantic triples. History[edit] Example of a semantic network "Semantic Nets" were first invented for computers by Richard H. Richens of the Cambridge Language Research Unit in 1956 as an "interlingua" for machine translation of natural languages.[2] Gunk (mereology) In mereology, an area of philosophical logic, the term gunk applies to any whole whose parts all have further proper parts. That is, a gunky object is not made of indivisible atoms: If something is made of atomless gunk then it divides forever into smaller and smaller parts—it is infinitely divisible. General formal ontology includes objects as well as processes and both are integrated into one coherent system,includes levels of reality,[2]is designed to support interoperability by principles of ontological mapping and reduction,contains several novel ontological modules, in particular, a module for functions and a module for roles, andis designed for applications, firstly in medical, biological, and biomedical areas, but also in the fields of economics and sociology. Taxonomic tree of GFO[edit] Basic taxonomic tree of the General Formal Ontology

Ontology Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality Overview[edit] Some fundamental questions[edit] Principal questions of ontology include: "What can be said to exist?"" untitled Part I. Getting Started Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. rdf:about Sesame 2 ¶ 1.1.1. Phylogenetic tree In a rooted phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the inferred most recent common ancestor of the descendants, and the edge lengths in some trees may be interpreted as time estimates. Each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units, as they cannot be directly observed. Trees are useful in fields of biology such as bioinformatics, systematics, and comparative phylogenetics. Unrooted trees illustrate only the relatedness of the leaf nodes and do not require the ancestral root to be known or inferred.

Upper ontology The seemingly conflicting use of metaphors implying a solid rigorous bottom-up "foundation" or a top-down imposition of somewhat arbitrary, and possibly political, decisions is no accident – the field is characterized by the usual mix of controversy, politics, competing approaches and academic rivalry. Some upper ontologies have led to commercial products, causing a financial incentive to promote one ontology over the competing systems. Debates notwithstanding, it can be said that a very important part of each upper ontology can be considered as the computational implementation of natural philosophy, which itself is a more empirical method for investigating the topics within the philosophical discipline of physical ontology. Library classification systems predate these upper ontology systems. Though library classifications organize and categorize knowledge using general concepts that are the same across all knowledge domains, neither system is a replacement for the other.

Philosophical realism Realists tend to believe that whatever we believe now is only an approximation of reality and that every new observation brings us closer to understanding reality.[2] In its Kantian sense, realism is contrasted with idealism. In a contemporary sense, realism is contrasted with anti-realism, primarily in the philosophy of science. History[edit] Platonic realism[edit] The Scottish School of Common Sense Realism[edit] Scottish Common Sense Realism is a school of philosophy that sought to defend naive realism against philosophical paradox and scepticism, arguing that matters of common sense are within the reach of common understanding and that common-sense beliefs even govern the lives and thoughts of those who hold non-commonsensical beliefs.

Semantic University Semantic University is the largest and most accessible source of educational material relating to semantics and Semantic Web technologies. It includes: Lessons suitable to those brand new to the space. Comparisons, both high-level and in-depth, with related technologies, such as SQL, NoSQL and Big Data. Interactive, hands on tutorials.