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For the suffix, see holism. Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that natural systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts.[1][2] Reductionism may be viewed as the complement of holism. Reductionism analyzes a complex system by subdividing or reduction to more fundamental parts. For example, the processes of biology are reducible to chemistry and the laws of chemistry are explained by physics. Social scientist and physician Nicholas A. History[edit] The idea has ancient roots. The concept of holism played a pivotal role in Baruch Spinoza's philosophy[8][9] and more recently in that of Hegel[10][11] and Edmund Husserl.[12][13] In science[edit] General scientific status[edit] In anthropology[edit]

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Epistemology Epistemology ( i/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge", and λόγος, logos, meaning "logical discourse") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.[1] Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification,[2][3] (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.

Emergentism In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts (or not) with reductionism. A property of a system is said to be emergent if it is in some sense more than the "sum" of the properties of the system's parts. An emergent property is said to be dependent on some more basic properties (and their relationships and configuration), so that it can have no separate existence.

Dare to Prepare: Collapse of Civilization Now Guaranteed Eric Blair "It has been written" as the saying goes. For many generations there have been small groups of people who have researched and protested the criminal nature of our rulers who cast their disease on civilization.

Monism Monism is the philosophical view that a variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance. The wide definition states that all existing things go back to a source which is distinct from them (e.g. in Neoplatonism everything is derived from The One). A commonly-used, restricted definition of monism asserts the presence of a unifying substance or essence. Holism in science Holism in science, or Holistic science, is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems. This practice is in contrast to a purely analytic tradition (sometimes called reductionism) which aims to gain understanding of systems by dividing them into smaller composing elements and gaining understanding of the system through understanding their elemental properties. The holism-reductionism dichotomy is often evident in conflicting interpretations of experimental findings and in setting priorities for future research. Overview[edit] Holism in science is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems.

Natural philosophy A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik De Wit Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural sciences such as physics. Atomism Atomism (from ancient Greek atomos , meaning "uncuttable") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void . Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory , philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] References to the concept of atomism and its atoms are found in ancient India and ancient Greece .

Get Free Legal Advice from Actual Lawyers at No, Really. Dear SirI had submitted resignation to join new bank.But bank after 15 days issued charge sheet and after rejected my resignation in august 98 I was compulsory retired from the services of bank on 19sept 1998 . In my case I hv evidence that no real enquiry was ever held . My appeal for reinstatement was pending .I was asked to submit letter with wordings: I MAY BE ALLOWED TO RESIGN IN CASE REINSTATED. Integral (spirituality) Integral thought is claimed to provide "a new understanding of how evolution affects the development of consciousness and culture."[3] It includes areas such as business, education, medicine, spirituality, sports,[14] psychology and psychotherapy.[15] The idea of the evolution of consciousness has also become a central theme in much of integral theory.[16] According to the Integral Transformative Practice website, integral means "dealing with the body, mind, heart, and soul.

Reductionism Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homine, 1662. Reductionism strongly reflects a certain perspective on causality. In a reductionist framework, the phenomena that can be explained completely in terms of relations between other more fundamental phenomena, are called epiphenomena. Often there is an implication that the epiphenomenon exerts no causal agency on the fundamental phenomena that explain it. Reductionism does not preclude the existence of what might be called emergent phenomena, but it does imply the ability to understand those phenomena completely in terms of the processes from which they are composed. This reductionist understanding is very different from that usually implied by the term 'emergence', which typically intends that what emerges is more than the sum of the processes from which it emerges.

Metaphysics Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[1] although the term is not easily defined.[2] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[3] Ultimately, what is there?What is it like? Prior to the modern history of science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as natural philosophy. Originally, the term "science" (Latin scientia) simply meant "knowledge". The scientific method, however, transformed natural philosophy into an empirical activity deriving from experiment unlike the rest of philosophy.

Holism is sometimes seen as being the opposite of reductionism. Reductionism argues that the way of solving a large problem is to define it as a series of smaller problems which may be solved separately and the sum of the solutions will represent the solution of the larger problem. Holism asserts that some problems are not amenable to reductionist approaches and these need to be studied or researched in a different way. A holistic orientated researcher will also argue that if a research problem is reduced to smaller problems than a simple summation of the findings of the smaller solutions may not adequately answer the greater or larger problem. Found in: 2013 - (Remenyi) Case Study Research: The Quick Guide Series by raviii Apr 26

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