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Holism - Wikipedia

Holism - Wikipedia
For the suffix, see holism. Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that natural systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts.[1][2] Reductionism may be viewed as the complement of holism. Reductionism analyzes a complex system by subdividing or reduction to more fundamental parts. Social scientist and physician Nicholas A. History[edit] The term "holism" was coined in 1926 by Jan Smuts, a South African statesman, in his book Holism and Evolution.[4] Smuts defined holism as the "tendency in nature to form wholes that are greater than the sum of the parts through creative evolution".[5] The idea has ancient roots. In science[edit] General scientific status[edit] In anthropology[edit] In branding[edit] Related:  Philosophy

Spiritual ecology - Wikipedia Introduction[edit] Contributors in the field of Spiritual Ecology contend there are spiritual elements at the root of environmental issues. Those working in the arena of Spiritual Ecology further suggest that there is a critical need to recognize and address the spiritual dynamics at the root of environmental degradation.[citation needed] The field is largely emerging through three individual streams of formal study and activity: science and academia, religion and spirituality, and ecological sustainability.[1] Despite the disparate arenas of study and practice, the principles of spiritual ecology are simple: In order to resolve such environmental issues as depletion of species, global warming, and over-consumption, humanity must examine and reassess our underlying attitudes and beliefs about the earth, and our spiritual responsibilities toward the planet.[2] U.S. History[edit] During the modern age, reason became valued over faith, tradition, and revelation. Indigenous wisdom[edit]

George Lakoff George P. Lakoff (/ˈleɪkɒf/, born May 24, 1941) is an American cognitive linguist, best known for his thesis that lives of individuals are significantly influenced by the central metaphors they use to explain complex phenomena. The more general theory that elaborated his thesis is known as embodied mind. He is professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1972. Work[edit] [edit] Although some of Lakoff's research involves questions traditionally pursued by linguists, such as the conditions under which a certain linguistic construction is grammatically viable, he is most famous for his reappraisal of the role that metaphors play in socio-political lives of humans. Metaphor has been seen within the Western scientific tradition as purely a linguistic construction. He suggested that: "Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature." Linguistics wars[edit] Embodied mind[edit]

Category:Holism English: Holism is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. <nowiki>holismo; 整體主義; holisztika; Heildarhyggja; Holismo; Holismu; холизм; Holismus; Холизам; 整全觀; Holisme; holizm; ホーリズム; Holismo; Dhammaystiran; Holism; הוליזם; Holismus; 整全觀; 整全观; 전체론; Holismo; holismus; முழுதளாவியம்; olismo; holisme; 整全觀; Holism; 整全观; Toto; Holismo; Holizam; holisme; Holizmus; holismo; Холизам; Holisms; Holisme; Холизам; халізм; Holismo; Holismi; 整全观; holisme; Holizm; holisme; 整全觀; Holizmas; کل‌نگری; holisme; Հոլիզմ; holism; كلانية; ολισμός; Холізм; posizione teorica; courant de pensée; iden att helheten är större en delarna; Osotasun baten osagaiak edo zatiak delako osotasunarekiko erlazioan soilik existitzen direla eta uler daitezkeela baieztatzen duen teoria.

Ideal observer theory The main idea [of the ideal observer theory] is that ethical terms should be defined after the pattern of the following example: "x is better than y" means "If anyone were, in respect of x and y, fully informed and vividly imaginative, impartial, in a calm frame of mind and otherwise normal, he would prefer x to y.[1] Adam Smith and David Hume espoused versions of the ideal observer theory. Roderick Firth laid out a more sophisticated modern version.[3] According to Firth, an ideal observer has the following specific characteristics: omniscience with respect to nonmoral facts, omnipercipience, disinterestedness, dispassionateness, consistency, and normalcy in all other respects. Those using the ideal observer theory do not usually assert that ideal observers actually exist. References[edit] External links[edit] Impartiality in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Hylozoism - Wikipedia Hylozoism is the philosophical point of view that matter is in some sense alive. The concept dates back at least as far as the Milesian school of pre-Socratic philosophers. The term was introduced to English by Ralph Cudworth in 1678. Distinction from similar theories[edit] Although there is a distinction between possessing a mind (hylopsychism) and possessing life (hylozoism); in practice this division is difficult to maintain, because the ancient hylozoists not only regarded the spirits of the material universe and plant world as alive, but also as more or less conscious. Ancient hylozoism[edit] In Renaissance and early Modernity[edit] In the Renaissance, Bernardino Telesio, Paracelsus, Cardanus, and Giordano Bruno revived the doctrine of hylozoism. In England, some of the Cambridge Platonists approached hylozoism as well. Spinoza's idealism also tends toward hylozoism. Contemporary hylozoism[edit] Martin Buber too takes an approach that is quasi-hylozoic. Alice A. Influenced by Alice A.

Metafor Se gränssnittsmetafor för motsvarande begrepp i datorers gränssnitt. En av metaforens viktigaste funktioner är att den främjar språkets nyskapande och spelar en roll för tänkande och begreppsbildning. Metaforer vidgar språkets uttryckssregister. De dolda metaforernas motsats är öppna metaforer. Besläktade stilfigurer[redigera | redigera wikitext] Metaforen är besläktad med andra stilfigurer så som katakresen, allegorin och liknelsen. Exempel[redigera | redigera wikitext] Metaforen skiljer sig från liknelsen på så vis att den enbart består av en bild och det som bilden betecknar, utan något jämförelseled (till exempel ordet "som"). ”Livet är (som) en sjöresa”. Om liknelsen utvidgas så att bildledet blir en berättelse får vi en allegori, som alltså är en förlängd metafor där man säger ett men menar något annat. ”Vårt liv rör sig mot ett fjärran mål genom storm och stiltje. I den rena metaforen (bilden) finns bara bildledet utsatt. ”Livets höst”. Relaterade topiker[redigera | redigera wikitext]

Category:Holism The main article for this category is Holism. Holism is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. Subcategories This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total. Pages in category "Holism" The following 49 pages are in this category, out of 49 total.

Health web science Health Web Science (HWS) is a sub-discipline of Web Science that examines the interplay between health sciences, health and well-being, and the World Wide Web. It assumes that each domain influences the others. HWS thus complements and overlaps with Medicine 2.0 (medicine enabled by emerging technologies).[1] Research has uncovered emergent properties that arise as individuals interact with each other, with healthcare providers and with the Web itself. History[edit] HWS began at the Web Science Curriculum meeting in the summer of 2010 at the University of Southampton where approximately forty scholars came together to discuss the subject. The dialogue to more precisely define HWS as a sub-discipline of Web Science began among Web-oriented investigators at the 2012 Medicine 2.0 Conference[4][5] and was formalized in 2013.[6] This nascent discipline of Health Web Science is further described and developed in the monograph "Health Web Science".[7] Health web observatory[edit] References[edit]

Stigmergy Kind people have stigmergically translated this article into German, French, and Spanish. This article is part of a series now incorporated into : ‘Binding Chaos’. Stigmergy is a mechanism of indirect coordination between agents or actions. The principle is that the trace left in the environment by an action stimulates the performance of a next action, by the same or a different agent. In that way, subsequent actions tend to reinforce and build on each other, leading to the spontaneous emergence of coherent, apparently systematic activity. A personality based system can never allow for mass collaboration on a global scale without representation such as that seen in organizations like the United Nations. Currently, the typical response to a situation which requires an action is to create a noun, in the form of a committee, commission, organization, corporation, ngo, government body, etc. Most systems are now run by competitive organizations. Hierarchical System Consensus Hierarchy Stigmergy

Olika trender och tips Wholistic reference Concept in logic Wholistic reference is reference to the whole—with respect to the context. In its strongest, unqualified form, the principle of wholistic reference is the proposition that each and every proposition, regardless how limited the referents of its non-logical or content terms, refers to the whole of its universe of discourse. According to this principle every proposition of number theory, even an equational proposition such as 5 + 7 = 12, refers not only to the individual numbers that it happens to mention but to the whole universe of numbers. George Boole (1815–1864) introduced this principle into modern logic: Even though he changed from a monistic fixed-universe framework in his 1840s writings to a pluralistic multiple-universe framework in 1854,[1] he never wavered in his frank avowal of the principle of wholistic reference. Similar views, perhaps not similarly motivated, are found in later logicians, including Gottlob Frege (1848–1925).

Holism is sometimes seen as being the opposite of reductionism. Reductionism argues that the way of solving a large problem is to define it as a series of smaller problems which may be solved separately and the sum of the solutions will represent the solution of the larger problem. Holism asserts that some problems are not amenable to reductionist approaches and these need to be studied or researched in a different way. A holistic orientated researcher will also argue that if a research problem is reduced to smaller problems than a simple summation of the findings of the smaller solutions may not adequately answer the greater or larger problem.

Found in: 2013 - (Remenyi) Case Study Research: The Quick Guide Series by raviii Apr 26