Skepticism Doubtful attitude toward knowledge claims Skepticism, also spelled scepticism, is a questioning attitude or doubt toward knowledge claims that are seen as mere belief or dogma. For example, if a person is skeptical about claims made by their government about an ongoing war then the person doubts that these claims are accurate. In such cases, skeptics normally recommend not disbelief but suspension of belief, i.e. maintaining a neutral attitude that neither affirms nor denies the claim. This attitude is often motivated by the impression that the available evidence is insufficient to support the claim. Philosophical skepticism is one important form of skepticism. Skepticism has been responsible for many important developments in science and philosophy. Definition and semantic field Some definitions, often inspired by ancient philosophy, see skepticism not just as an attitude but as a way of life. Skepticism is related to various terms. Types In various fields
plato.stanford 1. Introduction The terms “idealism” and “idealist” are by no means used only within philosophy; they are used in many everyday contexts as well. Within modern philosophy there are sometimes taken to be two fundamental conceptions of idealism: something mental (the mind, spirit, reason, will) is the ultimate foundation of all reality, or even exhaustive of reality, and although the existence of something independent of the mind is conceded, everything that we can know about this mind-independent “reality” is held to be so permeated by the creative, formative, or constructive activities of the mind (of some kind or other) that all claims to knowledge must be considered, in some sense, to be a form of self-knowledge. Idealism in sense (1) has been called “metaphysical” or “ontological idealism”, while idealism in sense (2) has been called “formal” or “epistemological idealism”. We also agree with Jeremy Dunham, Iain Hamilton Grant, and Sean Watson when they write that 2. that but that 3. 4.
branch_idealism Introduction | History of Idealism | Subjective Idealism | Transcendental Idealism | Objective Idealism | Absolute Idealism | Other Types of Idealism Idealism is the metaphysical and epistemological doctrine that ideas or thoughts make up fundamental reality. Essentially, it is any philosophy which argues that the only thing actually knowable is consciousness (or the contents of consciousness), whereas we never can be sure that matter or anything in the outside world really exists. Thus, the only real things are mental entities, not physical things (which exist only in the sense that they are perceived). Idealism is a form of Monism (as opposed to Dualism or Pluralism), and stands in direct contrast to other Monist beliefs such as Physicalism and Materialism (which hold that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is physical matter). Gottfried Leibniz expressed a form of Idealism known as Panpsychism. G. In the latter part of the 19th Century, British Idealism, led by F.
Imagination Creative ability Imagination is the production or simulation of novel objects, sensations, and ideas in the mind without any immediate input of the senses. Stefan Szczelkun characterises it as the forming of experiences in one's mind, which can be re-creations of past experiences, such as vivid memories with imagined changes, or completely invented and possibly fantastic scenes. Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and the learning process. As an approach to build theory, it is called "disciplined imagination". A basic training for imagination is listening to storytelling (narrative), in which the exactness of the chosen words is the fundamental factor to "evoke worlds". One view of imagination links it with cognition, seeing imagination as a cognitive process used in mental functioning. Imagination can also be expressed through stories such as fairy tales or fantasies. Books
www.britannica Greek and Roman materialism Though Thales of Miletus (c. 580 bce) and some of the other pre-Socratic philosophers have some claims to being regarded as materialists, the materialist tradition in Western philosophy really begins with Leucippus and Democritus, Greek philosophers who were born in the 5th century bce. Leucippus is known only through his influence on Democritus. According to Democritus, the world consists of nothing but atoms (indivisible chunks of matter) in empty space (which he seems to have thought of as an entity in its own right). These atoms can be imperceptibly small, and they interact either by impact or by hooking together, depending on their shapes. The great beauty of atomism was its ability to explain the changes in things as due to changes in the configurations of unchanging atoms. Modern materialism The 18th-century French materialists had been reacting against orthodox Christianity. Twentieth-century materialism Translation central-state theories
en.m.wikipedia Philosophical system founded by Immanuel Kant Transcendental idealism is a philosophical system founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. Kant's epistemological program is found throughout his Critique of Pure Reason (1781). By transcendental (a term that deserves special clarification) Kant means that his philosophical approach to knowledge transcends mere consideration of sensory evidence and requires an understanding of the mind's innate modes of processing that sensory evidence. In the "Transcendental Aesthetic" section of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant outlines how space and time are pure forms of human intuition contributed by our own faculty of sensibility. Background Although it influenced the course of subsequent German philosophy dramatically, exactly how to interpret this concept was a subject of some debate among 20th century philosophers. Kant's transcendental idealism Kant was aware of problems with both of these positions.
Anthropomorphism Personification is the related attribution of human form and characteristics to abstract concepts such as nations, emotions, and natural forces, such as seasons and weather. Both have ancient roots as storytelling and artistic devices, and most cultures have traditional fables with anthropomorphized animals as characters. People have also routinely attributed human emotions and behavioural traits to wild as well as domesticated animals. Etymology Anthropomorphism derives from its verb form anthropomorphize,[a] itself derived from the Greek ánthrōpos (ἄνθρωπος, lit. Examples in prehistory From the beginnings of human behavioural modernity in the Upper Paleolithic, about 40,000 years ago, examples of zoomorphic (animal-shaped) works of art occur that may represent the earliest evidence we have of anthropomorphism. This anthropomorphic art has been linked by archaeologist Steven Mithen with the emergence of more systematic hunting practices in the Upper Palaeolithic (Mithen 1998). Fables
Descartes4 Descartes' proof of the External World Let me remind you of the breathtaking follow-up to the proofs of God's existence: 'I do not see how God could be understood to be anything but a deceiver if these ideas [that sense gives us] were transmitted by a source other than corporeal things. It follows that corporeal things exist.' We have explored Descartes' conception of 'mind' or 'a mind'. So from the Cogito he has the conclusion that 'mind', or 'a mind' exists. Mind or minds? Having proved to his own satisfaction that God exists, Descartes then argues that if there is a God, the ordinary things around us must also exist. Can you write in a sentence what this argument is? Overhead 402 Can you suggest objections to this argument? Overhead 403 Overhead 404 Though these objections were put to Descartes, he was unmoved by them, and maintained the conclusions he had set out. The notion of a fundamental type of thing So here we have two types of thing, perhaps three. Are there more? Substance in Descartes
Idealism (NOTE: You must read only those linked materials that are preceded by the capitalized word READ.) This is the view that the only reality is the ideal world. This would be the world of ideas. It is the view that there is no external reality composed of matter and energy. Idealism is the metaphysical view that associates reality to ideas in the mind rather than to material objects. IDEALISM of Plato A well known exponent of this view was Plato, a philosopher in ancient Greece (428-347 B.C.). READ The ideas of Bishop Berkeley George Berkeley was an Anglican bishop from Ireland who challenged the irrationality of the notion that matter exists autonomously outside the mind as Locke and other contemporaneous empiricists speculated. Christian Science view of idealism Christian Scientists generally believe that God is a disembodied spirit who is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent. Hinduism There is the Advaita Vendantin tradition in Hinduism and in it a form of Idealism.
Anthropomorphism When you talk to your dog, your computer, your teddy bear, or your car as if you were speaking to another person, you are anthropomorphizing—or attributing human characteristics like emotions and intent to a non-human entity. Anthropomorphism is a universal mental process—pretty much everyone does it—but research shows that the degree to which individuals anthropomorphize can have significant consequences in their lives. Ascribing human qualities to inanimate objects is generally associated with innocuous, often positive effects like "cuteness," humor, empowerment, and a mature sense of responsibility. Anthropomorphism as it relates to nature, for example, can lead to better environmental conservation, and an anthropomorphic attitude towards money can lead to more financial stability.
materialism Materialism - Definitions & Doctrines Materialism can refer either to the simple preoccupation with the material world, as opposed to intellectual or spiritual concepts, or to the theory that physical matter is all there is. This theory is far more than a simple focus on material possessions. It states that everything in the universe is matter, without any true spiritual or intellectual existence. Materialism can also refer to a doctrine that material success and progress are the highest values in life. This doctrine appears to be prevalent in western society today. Materialism can also refer to the term, Cultural Materialism. Materialism - Philosophies & Worldviews Materialism and its theories can be traced as far back as the poem The Nature of Things, written in the first century B.C. by Lucretius. Materialism as a philosophy is held by those who maintain that existence is explainable solely in material terms, with no accounting of spirit or consciousness. Continue Your Investigation!
www.thoughtco Idealism is important to philosophical discourse because its adherents assert that reality is actually dependent upon the mind rather than something that exists independent of the mind. Or, put another way, that the ideas and thoughts of the mind constitute the essence or fundamental nature of all reality. Extreme versions of Idealism deny that any world at all exists outside of our minds. In any case, we cannot truly know anything for certain about whatever external world may exist; all we can know are the mental constructs created by our minds, which we can then attribute to an external world. The Meaning of the Mind The exact nature and identity of the mind upon which reality is dependent has divided idealists of various sorts for ages. Platonic Idealism According to Plato, there exists a perfect realm of what he calls Form and Ideas, and our world merely contains shadows of that realm. Epistemological Idealism Subjective Idealism Objective Idealism Transcendental Idealism Absolute Idealism