In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts (or not) with reductionism. A property of a system is said to be emergent if it is in some sense more than the "sum" of the properties of the system's parts. An emergent property is said to be dependent on some more basic properties (and their relationships and configuration), so that it can have no separate existence. However, a degree of independence is also asserted of emergent properties, so that they are not identical to, or reducible to, or predictable from, or deducible from their bases. The different ways in which the independence requirement can be satisfied lead to variant types of emergence. Forms of emergentism Other varieties see mind or consciousness as specifically and anomalously requiring emergentist explanation, and therefore constitute a family of positions in the philosophy of mind. Relationship to vitalism C. C.
The Major Transitions in EvolutionThe Major Transitions in Evolution is a book written by John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry (Oxford University Press, 1995). This was a seminal publication that continues to contribute to ongoing issues in evolutionary biology. Maynard Smith and Szathmáry identified several properties common to the transitions: As stated by the authors, this book was aimed at professional biologists and assumes considerable prior knowledge. They have also published a presentation of their ideas for a general readership under the title The Origins of Life — From the Birth of Life to the Origins of Language. See also ReferencesSchrödinger equationIn quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a partial differential equation that describes how the quantum state of some physical system changes with time. It was formulated in late 1925, and published in 1926, by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger. In classical mechanics, the equation of motion is Newton's second law, and equivalent formulations are the Euler–Lagrange equations and Hamilton's equations. In quantum mechanics, the analogue of Newton's law is Schrödinger's equation for a quantum system (usually atoms, molecules, and subatomic particles whether free, bound, or localized). The concept of a state vector is a fundamental postulate of quantum mechanics. In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, the wave function is the most complete description that can be given to a physical system. Equation Time-dependent equation The form of the Schrödinger equation depends on the physical situation (see below for special cases). Implications
Metasystem transitionA metasystem transition is the emergence, through evolution, of a higher level of organization or control. The concept of metasystem transition was introduced by the cybernetician Valentin Turchin in his 1970 book "The Phenomenon of Science", and developed among others by Francis Heylighen in the Principia Cybernetica Project. The related notion of evolutionary transition was proposed by the biologists John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry, in their 1995 book The Major Transitions in Evolution. Another related idea, that systems ("operators") evolve to become more complex by successive closures encapsulating components in a larger whole, is proposed in "The operator theory", developed by Gerard Jagers op Akkerhuis. Turchin has applied the concept of metasystem transition in the domain of computing, via the notion of metacompilation or supercompilation. Evolutionary Quanta See also References
Airborne robot swarms are making complex moves (w/ video)(PhysOrg.com) -- The GRASP Lab at the University of Pennsylvania this week released a video that shows their new look in GRASP Lab robotic flying devices. They are now showing flying devices with more complex behavior than before, in a fleet of flying devices that move in packs, navigate spaces with obstacles, flip over and retain position, and carry out formation flying, The researchers have cut down these robotic creature-like drones to small size to what they call “nano-quadrotors.” The video says as much about the GRASP Lab as the flying machines, in that the GRASP Labs seems intent on raising the bar on what robot swarms can achieve. Still, the video is clear proof that the team developers, Alex Kushleyev, Daniel Mellinger, and Vijay Kumar, are able to showcase complex autonomous swarm behavior. The objects, in the words of Engadget, are “four-bladed aerial ninjas.” The key word is agile. GRASP stands for General Robotics, Automation, Sensing and Perception Laboratory.
L'énigme de l'émergence - VariaSciences et Avenir nous gratifie d'un passionnant nouveau numéro hors-série consacré cette fois à l'énigme de l'émergence. Puisque une revue de cette qualité n'a toujours pas de site Web, en voici le sommaire détaillé. Entretiens Entretiens avec Elliot Sober et Lucien Sève. Dossier Hervé Zwirn, Qu'est-ce que l'émergence ? Les rubriques habituelles Janine Guespin-Michel et Camille Ripoll, La dialectique de l'émergence.Pascal Engel, Tout tohu-bohu est-il un capharnaüm ? Contrepoints Roger Balian, Un va-et-vient entre émergence et réductionJean-Paul Delahaye, Le big-bang numérique.Thierry Martin, Le hasard comme condition de l'émergence.Bertrand Hespel, Les figure de la réduction.Bernard Feltz, Autoorganisation et sélection naturelle.Claudine Tiercelin, Le concept d'émergence est-il métaphysique ?
Swarm roboticsSwarm of open-source Jasmine micro-robots recharging themselves Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of mostly simple physical robots. It is supposed that a desired collective behavior emerges from the interactions between the robots and interactions of robots with the environment. This approach emerged on the field of artificial swarm intelligence, as well as the biological studies of insects, ants and other fields in nature, where swarm behaviour occurs. Definition The research of swarm robotics is to study the design of robots, their physical body and their controlling behaviors. Unlike distributed robotic systems in general, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability, for instance by using only local communication. Video tracking is an essential tool for systematically studying swarm-behavior, even though other tracking methods are available. Goals and applications
The Emergence of Collective Intelligence | Ledface Blog~Aristotle When we observe large schools of fish swimming, we might wonder who is choreographing that complex and sophisticated dance, in which thousands of individuals move in harmony as if they knew exactly what to do to produce the collective spectacle. So, what is “Emergence”? School of fishes dancing is an example of “emergence”, a process where new properties, behaviors, or complex patterns results of relatively simple rules and interactions. One can see emergence as some magic phenomena or just as a surprising result caused by the current inability of our reductionist mind to understand complex patterns. Whichever way we think, examples of emerging behaviors are abundant in nature, science, and society and are are just a fact of life. Humans can do it too We humans have even built artificial environments that allow for collective intelligence to express itself. Each and every actor in the financial markets has no significant control over or awareness of its inputs.
Swarmrobot | Open-source micro-robotic projectInstitute for Ethics and Emerging TechnologiesSwarmanoid project