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Pantheism is the belief that the universe (or nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity,[1] or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God.[2] Pantheists thus do not believe in a distinct personal or anthropomorphic god.[3] Some Eastern religions are considered to be pantheistically inclined. Definitions[edit] Pantheism is derived from the Greek roots pan (meaning "all") and theos (meaning "God"). There are a variety of definitions of pantheism. Some consider it a theological and philosophical position concerning God.[4]:p.8 As a religious position, some describe pantheism as the polar opposite of atheism.[5] From this standpoint, pantheism is the view that everything is part of an all-encompassing, immanent God.[2] All forms of reality may then be considered either modes of that Being, or identical with it.[7] Others hold that pantheism is a non-religious philosophical position. History[edit] Recent developments[edit] "Mr. Categorizations[edit]

PANTHEISM: the World Pantheist Movement Cynicism Cynic or Cynicism may mean: Modes of thought[edit] Music[edit] Other[edit] Cynic epistles, an assorted collection of Roman era letters concerning Cynic philosophyCynical realism, a contemporary movement in Chinese artVermont Cynic, a student newspaper of the University of Vermont Joshua Foer: John Quijada and Ithkuil, the Language He Invented There are so many ways for speakers of English to see the world. We can glimpse, glance, visualize, view, look, spy, or ogle. Stare, gawk, or gape. Peek, watch, or scrutinize. Each word suggests some subtly different quality: looking implies volition; spying suggests furtiveness; gawking carries an element of social judgment and a sense of surprise. When we try to describe an act of vision, we consider a constellation of available meanings. Languages are something of a mess. “Natural languages are adequate, but that doesn’t mean they’re optimal,” John Quijada, a fifty-three-year-old former employee of the California State Department of Motor Vehicles, told me. Ithkuil has two seemingly incompatible ambitions: to be maximally precise but also maximally concise, capable of capturing nearly every thought that a human being could have while doing so in as few sounds as possible. At first, Quijada was bewildered by the interest emanating from Russia. Ithkuil did not emerge from nowhere.

Epicurus Ancient Greek philosopher For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to help people attain a happy, tranquil life characterized by ataraxia (peace and freedom from fear) and aponia (the absence of pain). He advocated that people were best able to pursue philosophy by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. Like Aristotle, Epicurus was an empiricist, meaning he believed that the senses are the only reliable source of knowledge about the world. Though popular, Epicurean teachings were controversial from the beginning. Life[edit] Upbringing and influences[edit] Map of Greece showing locations associated with Epicurus Allocation of key positions and satrapies following the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC after the death of Alexander the Great. Teaching career[edit] Marble sculpture depicting Epicurus enthroned During Epicurus's lifetime, Platonism was the dominant philosophy in higher education. Death[edit] Teachings[edit] Epistemology[edit] Ethics[edit] Don't fear god Physics[edit] Texts

Parrhesia In rhetoric, parrhesia is a figure of speech described as: to speak candidly or to ask forgiveness for so speaking.[1] The term is borrowed from the Greek παρρησία (πᾶν "all" + ῥῆσις / ῥῆμα "utterance, speech") meaning literally "to speak everything" and by extension "to speak freely," "to speak boldly," or "boldness." It implies not only freedom of speech, but the obligation to speak the truth for the common good, even at personal risk. An example of this is the quote "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat" by Winston Churchill.[2] Usage in Ancient Greece[edit] New Testament use[edit] A related use of parrhesia is found in the Greek New Testament, where it means "bold speech," the ability of believers to hold their own in discourse before political and religious authorities (e.g. Modern scholarship[edit] There are several conditions upon which the traditional Ancient Greek notion of parrhesia relies. Foucault (1983) sums up the Ancient Greek concept of parrhesia as such:

Ithkuil A phrase in the original version of Ithkuil, rendered in native script. Romanization: Oumpeá äx’ääļuktëx. Translation: "On the contrary, I think it may turn out that this rugged mountain range trails off at some point." Ithkuil is a constructed language created by John Quijada, designed to express deeper levels of human cognition briefly yet overtly and clearly, particularly with regard to human categorization. The many examples from the original grammar book[2] show that a message, like a meaningful phrase or a sentence, can usually be expressed in Ithkuil with fewer sounds, or lexically distinct speech-elements, than in natural human languages. In 2004[3] — and again in 2009[4] with its offshoot Ilaksh — Ithkuil was featured in the Russian-language popular science and IT-technology magazine Computerra. The second "definitive (or 'official')" revision is a major revision that was released on 15 July 2011 and is also named Ithkuil out of convenience and continuity. Outline[edit] audio

Altruism Giving alms to the poor is often considered an altruistic action. Altruism or selflessness is the principle or practice of concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a core aspect of various religious traditions and secular worldviews, though the concept of "others" toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Altruism or selflessness is the opposite of selfishness. Altruism can be distinguished from feelings of loyalty. Much debate exists as to whether "true" altruism is possible. The notion of altruism[edit] The concept has a long history in philosophical and ethical thought. Individual variations[edit] A certain individual may behave altruistically in one case and egoistically in another situation. A 1986 study estimated that altruism was half-inherited. Scientific viewpoints[edit] Anthropology[edit] Marcel Mauss's book The Gift contains a passage: "Note on alms." Evolutionary explanations[edit] Group selection.

Lateral thinking Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic. The term was coined in 1967 by Edward de Bono. [1] According to de Bono, lateral thinking deliberately distances itself from standard perceptions of creativity as either "vertical" logic (the classic method for problem solving: working out the solution step-by-step from the given data) or "horizontal" imagination (having many ideas but being unconcerned with the detailed implementation of them). Methods[edit] Critical thinking is primarily concerned with judging the true value of statements and seeking errors. Lateral thinking is more concerned with the "movement value" of statements and ideas. Random Entry Idea Generating Tool: The thinker chooses an object at random, or a noun from a dictionary, and associates it with the area they are thinking about. See also[edit]

A Grammar of Ithkuil, a Constructed Philosophical Language