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Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism (pronunciation: /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/) is a religion[3] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India during the middle ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[web 1][5] Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Shingon and Tiantai (Tendai), is found throughout East Asia. Life of the Buddha "The Great Departure", relic depicting Gautama leaving home, first or second century (Musée Guimet). Buddhist concepts Dukkha Rebirth Saṃsāra Rebirth Karma

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Jainism and non-creationism Jainism does not support belief in a creator deity. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents—soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion—have always existed. All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws. Islam Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/;[note 1] Arabic: الإسلام‎, al-ʾIslām IPA: [ælʔɪsˈlæːm] ( )[note 2]) is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, an Islamic holy book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Allāh), and for the vast majority of adherents, also by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Most Muslims are of two denominations: Sunni (75–90%)[8] or Shia (10–20%).[9] About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia,[10] the largest Muslim-majority country, 25% in South Asia,[10] 20% in the Middle East,[11] and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.[12] Sizable minorities are also found in Europe, China, Russia, and the Americas.

Buddhist meditation Buddhist meditation refers to the meditative practices associated with the religion and philosophy of Buddhism. Core meditation techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward Enlightenment and Nirvana.[a] The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism are bhāvanā[b] and jhāna/dhyāna.

Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also referred to as adult ADHD or simply ADHD in adults, formerly AADD) is the neurobiological condition of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. About one-third[1]p. 44 to two-thirds[2]p. 87 of children with symptoms from early childhood continue to demonstrate notable ADHD symptoms throughout life. Three subtypes of ADHD are identified in the DSM-IV: Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-PI)Predominantly Hyperactive (ADHD-PH)Combined type (ADHD-C). In later life, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype manifests more frequently[1]p. 44, although with age the hyperactivity symptoms tend to turn more into "inner restlessness" in teens and adults with ADHD.[3] Diagnosis of the condition includes assessment interviews by clinicians with:

5 Minute Introduction • What is Buddhism? Buddhism is a religion to about 300 million people around the world. The word comes from 'budhi', 'to awaken'. It has its origins about 2,500 years ago when Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, was himself awakened (enlightened) at the age of 35. • Is Buddhism a Religion? Cārvāka Cārvāka (Sanskrit: चार्वाक), also known as Lokāyata, is a system of Indian philosophy that assumes various forms of materialism, philosophical skepticism and religious indifference.[1] Cārvāka is classified as a heterodox Hindu (Nāstika) system.[2][3][4] It is characterized as a materialistic and atheistic school of thought. While this branch of Indian philosophy is today not considered to be part of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, some describe it as an atheistic or materialistic philosophical movement within Hinduism.[5][6] Name[edit] Etymologically, Cārvāka means "agreeable speech" or "sweet talkers" (cāru – agreeable, pleasant or sweet and vāk – speech) and Lokāyata signifies "prevalence in the world" (loka – world and āyata – prevalent).[10][11][12][13] The name Lokāyata can be traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to three ānvīkṣikīs (logical philosophies) — Yoga, Samkhya and Lokāyata.

Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century.[9][10] Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East, it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule.[11] During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, and adherents were gained in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India.[12][13] Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization.[14][15][16] Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.[17][18][19][20][21] Beliefs Creeds Its main points include: Ten Commandments

Buddhism and the Brain Credit: Flickr user eschipul Over the last few decades many Buddhists and quite a few neuroscientists have examined Buddhism and neuroscience, with both groups reporting overlap. I’m sorry to say I have been privately dismissive. One hears this sort of thing all the time, from any religion, and I was sure in this case it would break down upon closer scrutiny. When a scientific discovery seems to support any religious teaching, you can expect members of that religion to become strict empiricists, telling themselves and the world that their belief is grounded in reality. They are always less happy to accept scientific data they feel contradicts their preconceived beliefs. Memory sport Memory sport, sometimes referred to as competitive memory or the mind sport of memory, is a competition in which participants attempt to memorize the most information that they can then present back, under certain guidelines. The sport has been formally developed since 1991, and features regional and international championships. One common type of competition involves memorizing the order of randomized cards in as little time as possible, after which the competitor is required to arrange new decks of cards in the same order.

The religion of Buddhism Religions of the world Menu Quotation by Siddhãrtha Gautama (Buddha): "Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard it. Vaisheshika Vaisheshika or Vaiśeṣika (Sanskrit: वैशेषिक) is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (Vedic systems) of India. Historically, it has been closely associated with the Hindu school of logic, Nyaya. Vaisheshika espouses a form of atomism and postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms.

Platonism Platonism (with a capital "P") is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. With a lower case "p", "platonism" refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects, which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, and is the opposite of nominalism (with a lower case "n").[1] Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato.[1] Philosophy[edit] The primary concept is the Theory of Forms. The only true being is founded upon the forms, the eternal, unchangeable, perfect types, of which particular objects of sense are imperfect copies.

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