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A satellite photo of a mesa in Cydonia, often called the Face on Mars. Later imagery from other angles did not contain the illusion. Examples[edit] Projective tests[edit] The Rorschach inkblot test uses pareidolia in an attempt to gain insight into a person's mental state. Art[edit] In his notebooks, Leonardo da Vinci wrote of pareidolia as a device for painters, writing "if you look at any walls spotted with various stains or with a mixture of different kinds of stones, if you are about to invent some scene you will be able to see in it a resemblance to various different landscapes adorned with mountains, rivers, rocks, trees, plains, wide valleys, and various groups of hills. Religious[edit] Publicity surrounding sightings of religious figures and other surprising images in ordinary objects has spawned a market for such items on online auctions like eBay. Divination[edit] Various European ancient divination practices involve the interpretation of shadows cast by objects. Fossils[edit] Related:  WIKIPEDIAIllusion & Cognitive Distortions

Moon rabbit The rover encountered operational difficulties after the first 14-day Lunar night, and was unable to move on the Lunar surface after the end of the second Lunar night, yet it is still gathering some useful data. The Yutu lunar rover was developed by Shanghai Aerospace System Engineering Institute (SASEI) and Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering (BISSE). The development of the six-wheeled rover began in 2002 and was completed in May 2010.[8][9][10] It was designed to deploy from the lander and explore the lunar surface independently. The official mission objective was to achieve China's first soft-landing and roving exploration on the Moon, as well as to demonstrate and develop key technologies for future missions.[11] The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program was divided into three main operational phases:[11] Unlike NASA and ESA, the China National Space Administration reveals little about its missions to the public, so detailed information about Chang'e 3 is limited.

Apophenia Apophenia /æpɵˈfiːniə/ is the experience of perceiving patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. The term is attributed to Klaus Conrad[1] by Peter Brugger,[2] who defined it as the "unmotivated seeing of connections" accompanied by a "specific experience of an abnormal meaningfulness", but it has come to represent the human tendency to seek patterns in random information in general, such as with gambling and paranormal phenomena.[3] Meanings and forms[edit] In 2008, Michael Shermer coined the word "patternicity", defining it as "the tendency to find meaningful patterns in meaningless noise".[6][7] In The Believing Brain (2011), Shermer says that we have "the tendency to infuse patterns with meaning, intention, and agency", which Shermer calls "agenticity".[8] Statistics[edit] Pareidolia[edit] Pareidolia is a type of apophenia involving the perception of images or sounds in random stimuli, for example, hearing a ringing phone while taking a shower. Gambling[edit] Examples[edit]

Made in China: European Clone Towns Taking counterfeiting to a whole new level… Paris in China In the outskirts of Shanghai stands a fake Eiffel Tower overlooking a replica of the Champ de Mars and rows of Parisian townhouses. This is not Disneyland in China, this is the gated community of Tianducheng, built in 2007 by real estate develepors Zhejiang Guangsha Co. Ltd. Rather mysteriously, very little information about the town has been made available since it’s opening in 2007. The last known population of Tianducheng is around 2,000, yet the town can comfortably house over 100,000 people. More than anything, Tianducheng is a popular place for young newlyweds to use for their wedding photography, using the fake Paris as a backdrop. This is Hallstatt, Austria: And this is it’s Chinese knock-off: A replica of an entire historical Austrian town was unveiled in the Chinese province of Guangdong earlier this year. Hallstatt: Not Hallstatt: Little London in China Photos via here, here, here and here.

Semantic satiation History and research[edit] The phrase "semantic satiation" was coined by Leon Jakobovits James in his doctoral dissertation at McGill University, Montreal, Canada awarded in 1962.[1] Prior to that, the expression "verbal satiation" had been used along with terms that express the idea of mental fatigue. The dissertation listed many of the names others had used for the phenomenon: "Many other names have been used for what appears to be essentially the same process: inhibition (Herbert, 1824, in Boring, 1950), refractory phase and mental fatigue (Dodge, 1917; 1926a), lapse of meaning (Bassett and Warne, 1919), work decrement (Robinson and Bills, 1926), cortical inhibition (Pavlov, 192?) The explanation for the phenomenon was that verbal repetition repeatedly aroused a specific neural pattern in the cortex which corresponds to the meaning of the word. Applications[edit] In popular culture[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit] Dodge, R.

Self-Deception I: Rationalization In this new series I shall be examining some of the most important methods of self-deception , starting today with the ego defence of rationalization. Rationalization is the use of feeble but seemingly plausible arguments either to justify something that is difficult to accept or to make it seem ‘not so bad after all'. A person who has been rejected by a love interest convinces herself that he rejected her because he did not share in her ideal of happiness , and, what's more, that the rejection is a blessing in disguise in that it has freed her to find a more suitable partner. The first rationalization (that her love interest rejected her because they did not share in the same ideal of happiness) is a case of justifying something that is difficult to accept, sometimes called ‘sour grapes'. The second rationalization (that the rejection has freed her to find a more suitable partner) is a case of making it seem ‘not so bad after all', also called ‘sweet lemons'. Here's another example.

Hallstat chinese copy Just one year after announcing ambitious plans to copy of a small idyllic Austrian mountain village, Chinese developers have unveiled their clone hamlet. Located just outside the southeastern city of Huizhou, the new village is a close approximation of Hallstatt, Vienna, complete with rows of pastel-colored chalets, architectural finials, and even an exact replica of the town clock tower that characterize the 900-year old original. Overseen and operated by Minmetals Land Inc., the $940 million project was recently completed, with Halstatt mayor Alexander Scheutz on hand to open the complex to tourists this past Saturday. When news of the project spread last summer, Hallstatt residents expressed outrage at the idea of the Chinese fake, threatening to make an appeal to UNESCO to potentially halt the building. As Reuters reports, the Chinese Hallstatt is comprised of expensive housing units for the city’s nouveau riche, with other shops and sites for tourists.

Voynich manuscript The Voynich manuscript is an illustrated codex hand-written in an unknown writing system. The vellum on which it is written has been carbon-dated to the early 15th century (1404–1438), and may have been composed in Northern Italy during the Italian Renaissance.[1][2] The manuscript is named after Wilfrid Voynich, a Polish book dealer who purchased it in 1912.[3] Some of the pages are missing, but about 240 remain. The text is written from left to right, and most of the pages have illustrations or diagrams. The Voynich manuscript has been studied by many professional and amateur cryptographers, including American and British codebreakers from both World War I and World War II.[4] No one has yet succeeded in deciphering the text, and it has become a famous case in the history of cryptography. The mystery of the meaning and origin of the manuscript has excited the popular imagination, making the manuscript the subject of novels and speculation. The Voynich manuscript was donated by Hans P.

Editing Reality In September 2007, the British press reported on an unusually macabre story. Ten years earlier, a widow had died at the age of 84 from an embolism brought on by a thrombosis in one of the veins in her legs. However, the widow's two middle-aged daughters queried this cause of death, and asked the funeral parlour to keep their mother's cadaver in cold storage. The initial purpose for this request had been to obtain a second opinion, but ten years later the cadaver had still not been interred. Instead, the daughters had been having the cadaver brought out into a chapel of rest to be visited by them at regular intervals. With the passing years, the cadaver had decomposed into little more than a skeleton with a bit of stretched, scaly skin over the head and upper body. Denial, a term that is often dropped into casual conversation, is the simple refusal to admit to certain unacceptable or unmanageable aspects of reality, even in the face of overwhelming evidence for their existence.

Thames town and more By Daily Mail Reporter Published: 11:47 GMT, 6 May 2013 | Updated: 12:15 GMT, 7 May 2013 China is notorious for making knock-off designer clothes and high-end electronics. With its mock Tudor buildings, cobbled streets, red telephone boxes and a Gothic church, this could be a quaint English market town, but bizarre settlement is actually in the People's Republic. And unlike most places in the UK, its population is shrinking. Scroll down for video Quaint: Newly-wed Chinese couples pose in the streets of Thames town, a British themed town near Shanghai Chinese knock off: Thames Town is in Songjiang District, about 19 miles from central Shanghai Spot the difference: With its mock Tudor buildings, cobbled streets, red telephone boxes and a Gothic church, it is an almost perfect replica of a quaint English town Bizarre: Contrary to appearances, Thames Town is not a resort or a theme park but is actually a new town modelled on the 'British way of life' 'I think English properties are very special.

Proprioception The cerebellum is largely responsible for coordinating the unconscious aspects of proprioception. Proprioception (/ˌproʊpri.ɵˈsɛpʃən/ PRO-pree-o-SEP-shən), from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual" and perception, is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.[1] It is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles and in joints. It is distinguished from exteroception, by which one perceives the outside world, and interoception, by which one perceives pain, hunger, etc., and the movement of internal organs. The brain integrates information from proprioception and from the vestibular system into its overall sense of body position, movement, and acceleration. The word kinesthesia or kinæsthesia (kinesthetic sense) has been used inconsistently to refer either to proprioception alone or to the brain's integration of proprioceptive and vestibular inputs. History of study[edit] Components[edit]

50 Common Cognitive Distortions 3. Negative predictions. Overestimating the likelihood that an action will have a negative outcome. 4. Underestimating coping ability. Underestimating your ability cope with negative events. 5. Thinking of unpleasant events as catastrophes. 6. For example, during social interactions, paying attention to someone yawning but not paying the same degree of attention to other cues that suggest they are interested in what you’re saying (such as them leaning in). 7. Remembering negatives from a social situation and not remembering positives. 8. Believing an absence of a smiley-face in an email means someone is mad at you. 9. The belief that achieving unrelentingly high standards is necessary to avoid a catastrophe. 10. Believing the same rules that apply to others should not apply to you. 11. For example, I’ve made progress toward my goal and therefore it’s ok if I act in a way that is inconsistent with it. 12. For example, believing that poor people must deserve to be poor. 13. 14. It’s not. 15. 16.

Centralia Mine Fire Centralia, Pennsylvania No one knows exactly how it started, but a coal vein has been burning under the Pennsylvania mining town of Centralia since 1961. Some trace it back to careless trash incineration in an open pit mine igniting a coal vein. The fire crawled, insidiously, along coal-rich deposits far from the miner's pick, venting hot and poisonous gases up into town, through the basements of homes and businesses. With dawning horror, residents came to realize that the fire was not going to be extinguished, or ever burn itself out -- at least not until all the interconnected coal veins in eastern Pennsylvania were spent in some epic, meatless barbecue. The government eventually stepped in, and Centralia joined an elite club of communities, including Love Canal and Times Beach. We first visited in the mid-1980s, when 80% of Centralia had already been abandoned. Today, still no trench, but charred remains of Centralia hang on. It's dusk, and we don't see any signs of the fire.

Great Fire of London Detail of the Great Fire of London by an unknown painter, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September 1666 from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. The Tower of London is on the right and London Bridge on the left, with St. Paul's Cathedral in the distance, surrounded by the tallest flames. The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London, from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666.[1] The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall. The Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner (or Farynor) on Pudding Lane, shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, and spread rapidly west across the City of London. The social and economic problems created by the disaster were overwhelming. London in the 1660s By the 1660s, London was by far the largest city in Britain, estimated at half a million inhabitants. Fire hazards in the City Sunday

Gunkanjima: l'isola fantasma. ENGLISH VERSION: Gunkanjima: the ghost island L'isola di Hashima, sperduta tra le 505 isole disabitate della prefettura di Nagasaki, in Giappone, è un luogo spettrale e affascinante, meta di un insolito turismo avventuroso e alternativo. L'isola è chiamata anche Gunkanjima, che significa "nave da guerra", per via dell'aspetto che assume il suo profilo sul letto dell'Oceano: un'isola grigia e decadente, circondata da un grande muro di cemento e i cui edifici prossimi al collasso vanno a delineare la forma di una specie di grande nave da guerra. Questa misteriosa isola fu costruita sopra un'importante miniera di carbone (di proprietà della Mitsubishi) che, nel periodo compreso tra il 1887 ed il 1974, contribuiva notevolmente a rifornire di energia la città di Nagasaki, che si trovava ad un'ora di navigazione. Nel periodo di massima attività l'isola produceva 410.000 tonnellate di carbone all'anno, una produzione intensa che andava però a discapito della vita umana. Altri link: