Semantic satiation History and research The phrase "semantic satiation" was coined by Leon Jakobovits James in his doctoral dissertation at McGill University, Montreal, Canada awarded in 1962. Prior to that, the expression "verbal satiation" had been used along with terms that express the idea of mental fatigue. The dissertation listed many of the names others had used for the phenomenon: "Many other names have been used for what appears to be essentially the same process: inhibition (Herbert, 1824, in Boring, 1950), refractory phase and mental fatigue (Dodge, 1917; 1926a), lapse of meaning (Bassett and Warne, 1919), work decrement (Robinson and Bills, 1926), cortical inhibition (Pavlov, 192?) The explanation for the phenomenon was that verbal repetition repeatedly aroused a specific neural pattern in the cortex which corresponds to the meaning of the word. Applications In popular culture See also References Further reading Dodge, R.
Made in China: European Clone Towns Taking counterfeiting to a whole new level… Paris in China In the outskirts of Shanghai stands a fake Eiffel Tower overlooking a replica of the Champ de Mars and rows of Parisian townhouses. This is not Disneyland in China, this is the gated community of Tianducheng, built in 2007 by real estate develepors Zhejiang Guangsha Co. Ltd. Rather mysteriously, very little information about the town has been made available since it’s opening in 2007. The last known population of Tianducheng is around 2,000, yet the town can comfortably house over 100,000 people. More than anything, Tianducheng is a popular place for young newlyweds to use for their wedding photography, using the fake Paris as a backdrop. This is Hallstatt, Austria: And this is it’s Chinese knock-off: A replica of an entire historical Austrian town was unveiled in the Chinese province of Guangdong earlier this year. Hallstatt: Not Hallstatt: Little London in China Photos via here, here, here and here.
Proprioception The cerebellum is largely responsible for coordinating the unconscious aspects of proprioception. Proprioception (/ˌproʊpri.ɵˈsɛpʃən/ PRO-pree-o-SEP-shən), from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual" and perception, is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement. It is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles and in joints. It is distinguished from exteroception, by which one perceives the outside world, and interoception, by which one perceives pain, hunger, etc., and the movement of internal organs. The brain integrates information from proprioception and from the vestibular system into its overall sense of body position, movement, and acceleration. The word kinesthesia or kinæsthesia (kinesthetic sense) has been used inconsistently to refer either to proprioception alone or to the brain's integration of proprioceptive and vestibular inputs. History of study Components
Hallstat chinese copy Just one year after announcing ambitious plans to copy of a small idyllic Austrian mountain village, Chinese developers have unveiled their clone hamlet. Located just outside the southeastern city of Huizhou, the new village is a close approximation of Hallstatt, Vienna, complete with rows of pastel-colored chalets, architectural finials, and even an exact replica of the town clock tower that characterize the 900-year old original. Overseen and operated by Minmetals Land Inc., the $940 million project was recently completed, with Halstatt mayor Alexander Scheutz on hand to open the complex to tourists this past Saturday. When news of the project spread last summer, Hallstatt residents expressed outrage at the idea of the Chinese fake, threatening to make an appeal to UNESCO to potentially halt the building. As Reuters reports, the Chinese Hallstatt is comprised of expensive housing units for the city’s nouveau riche, with other shops and sites for tourists.
Geology of Mars The geology of Mars is the scientific study of the surface, crust, and interior of the planet Mars. It emphasizes the composition, structure, history, and physical processes that shape the planet. It is fully analogous to the field of terrestrial geology. In planetary science, the term geology is used in its broadest sense to mean the study of the solid parts of planets and moons. The term incorporates aspects of geophysics, geochemistry, mineralogy, geodesy, and cartography. A neologism, areology, from the Greek word Arēs (Mars), sometimes appears as a synonym for Mars' geology in the popular media and works of science fiction (e.g., Kim Stanley Robinson’s Mars trilogy), but the term is rarely, if ever, used by professional geologists and planetary scientists. Image map of Mars The following imagemap of the planet Mars has embedded links to geographical features in addition to the noted Rover and Lander locations. Composition of Mars Global physiography
Thames town and more By Daily Mail Reporter Published: 11:47 GMT, 6 May 2013 | Updated: 12:15 GMT, 7 May 2013 China is notorious for making knock-off designer clothes and high-end electronics. With its mock Tudor buildings, cobbled streets, red telephone boxes and a Gothic church, this could be a quaint English market town, but bizarre settlement is actually in the People's Republic. And unlike most places in the UK, its population is shrinking. Scroll down for video Quaint: Newly-wed Chinese couples pose in the streets of Thames town, a British themed town near Shanghai Chinese knock off: Thames Town is in Songjiang District, about 19 miles from central Shanghai Spot the difference: With its mock Tudor buildings, cobbled streets, red telephone boxes and a Gothic church, it is an almost perfect replica of a quaint English town Bizarre: Contrary to appearances, Thames Town is not a resort or a theme park but is actually a new town modelled on the 'British way of life' 'I think English properties are very special.
Closed-eye hallucination Closed-eye hallucinations and closed-eye visualizations (CEV) are a distinct class of hallucination. These types of hallucinations generally only occur when one's eyes are closed or when one is in a darkened room. They can be a form of phosphene. Certain users report closed-eye hallucinations under the influence of psychedelics. Levels of CEV perception There are five known levels of CEV perception which can be achieved either through chemical stimuli or through meditative relaxation techniques. Level 1: Visual noise CEV noise simulation The most basic form of CEV perception that can be immediately experienced in normal waking consciousness involves a seemingly random noise of pointillistic light/dark regions with no apparent shape or order. This can be seen when the eyes are closed and looking at the back of the eyelids. Level 2: Light/dark flashes Level 3: Patterns, motion, and color Level 4: Objects and things This is a fairly deep state. Corneal liquid
Centralia Mine Fire Centralia, Pennsylvania No one knows exactly how it started, but a coal vein has been burning under the Pennsylvania mining town of Centralia since 1961. Some trace it back to careless trash incineration in an open pit mine igniting a coal vein. The fire crawled, insidiously, along coal-rich deposits far from the miner's pick, venting hot and poisonous gases up into town, through the basements of homes and businesses. With dawning horror, residents came to realize that the fire was not going to be extinguished, or ever burn itself out -- at least not until all the interconnected coal veins in eastern Pennsylvania were spent in some epic, meatless barbecue. The government eventually stepped in, and Centralia joined an elite club of communities, including Love Canal and Times Beach. We first visited in the mid-1980s, when 80% of Centralia had already been abandoned. Today, still no trench, but charred remains of Centralia hang on. It's dusk, and we don't see any signs of the fire.
Santuario de Las Lajas Situación geográfica[editar] Aspectos arquitectónicos[editar] La edificación actual, construida al principio del siglo XX, sustituyó una capilla que databa del Siglo XVIII y es una iglesia de piedra gris y blanca de estilo Neogótico, a imitación del Gótico del siglo XIV, compuesta de tres naves construidas sobre un puente de dos arcos que cruza sobre el río y que hace de atrio o plaza de la basílica uniéndola con el otro lado del cañón. La altura del templo, desde su base hasta la torre es de 100 metros, y el puente mide 50 metros de alto por 17 metros de ancho y 20 metros de largo. Los muros que flanquean los accesos al santuario característicamente escalonados por la topografía del terreno, están llenos de exvotos y placas con agradecimientos por los favores recibidos, así como con aparatos ortopédicos para dar testimonio de curaciones atribuidas al favor de la advocación venerada. Historia[editar] Escultura de la mujer indígena María Mueses y su hija Rosa Etapas del santuario[editar]
Gunkanjima: l'isola fantasma. ENGLISH VERSION: Gunkanjima: the ghost island L'isola di Hashima, sperduta tra le 505 isole disabitate della prefettura di Nagasaki, in Giappone, è un luogo spettrale e affascinante, meta di un insolito turismo avventuroso e alternativo. L'isola è chiamata anche Gunkanjima, che significa "nave da guerra", per via dell'aspetto che assume il suo profilo sul letto dell'Oceano: un'isola grigia e decadente, circondata da un grande muro di cemento e i cui edifici prossimi al collasso vanno a delineare la forma di una specie di grande nave da guerra. Questa misteriosa isola fu costruita sopra un'importante miniera di carbone (di proprietà della Mitsubishi) che, nel periodo compreso tra il 1887 ed il 1974, contribuiva notevolmente a rifornire di energia la città di Nagasaki, che si trovava ad un'ora di navigazione. Nel periodo di massima attività l'isola produceva 410.000 tonnellate di carbone all'anno, una produzione intensa che andava però a discapito della vita umana. Altri link:
Breast-shaped hill Overview The name Mamucium that gave origin to the name of the city of Manchester is thought to derive from the Celtic language meaning "breast-shaped hill", referring to the sandstone bluff on which the fort stood; this later evolved into the name Manchester. Mostly breast-shaped hills are connected with local ancestral veneration of the breast as a symbol of fertility and well-being. It is not uncommon for very old archaeological sites to be located in or below such hills, as on Samson, Isles of Scilly, where there are large ancient burial grounds both on the North Hill and South Hill, or Burrén and Burrena, Aragon, Spain, where two Iron Age Urnfield culture archaeological sites lie beneath the hills. Travelers and cartographers in colonial times often changed the ancestral names of such hills. Africa African Great Lakes Horn of Africa Naasa Hablood in Somalia Indian Ocean Southern Africa Omatako Mountain south-west of Otjiwarongo in Namibia West Africa In fiction Cuba
Petra and the Nabataeans This Bible History Daily article was originally published in 2012. It has been updated.—Ed. Who were the Nabataeans? For every tourist who visits the ancient city of Petra in modern-day Jordan, there is one breathtaking moment that captures all of the grandeur and mystery of this city carved in stone. The façade, popularly known as the Khazneh, or “Treasury,” appears first only as a faint vision, its architectural details and full dimensions crowded out by the darkened walls of the Siq. The Khazneh is both unexpectedly familiar, and at the same time, strangely exotic. Al-Khazneh (“the Treasury”), likely a tomb or monument to King Aretas IV who ruled over the Nabataeans from 9 B.C. to 40 A.D. In many ways, the Khazneh epitomizes the complex character and competing ambitions of the Nabataeans, the industrious Arab people who built the city of Petra and its towering rock-cut monuments (including the Khazneh) over 2,000 years ago. Not a BAS Library member yet? Glenn J.
Wahhabism Wahhabism (Arabic: وهابية, Wahhābiyyah) is a religious movement or sect or branch of Sunni Islam variously described as "orthodox", "ultraconservative", "austere", "fundamentalist", "puritanical" (or "puritan"), an Islamic "reform movement" to restore "pure monotheistic worship", or an "extremist pseudo-Sunni movement". It aspires to return to the earliest fundamental Islamic sources of the Quran and Hadith, with inspiration from the teachings of Medieval theologian Ibn Taymiyyah and early jurist Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Etymology According to Saudi writer Abdul Aziz Qassim, it was the Ottomans who "first labelled Abdul Wahhab's school of Islam in Saudi Arabia as Wahhabism". Wahhabis do not like—or at least did not like—the term. Naming controversy: Wahhabism and Salafism According to Robert Lacey "the Wahhabis have always disliked the name customarily given to them" and preferred to be called Muwahhidun. One American Scholar (Christopher M. History
Nuove sette meraviglie del mondo Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Le nuove sette meraviglie del mondo sono sette opere architettoniche che idealmente richiamano l'antico elenco canonico delle sette meraviglie del mondo (risalente al III secolo a.C.). L'iniziativa non è in alcun modo legata all'UNESCO. Storia[modifica | modifica sorgente] Durante i Giochi della XXVII Olimpiade, svoltisi nel 2000 a Sydney, lo svizzero-canadese Bernard Weber lanciò un referendum mondiale via internet per determinare le "Nuove sette meraviglie del mondo" fra 17 opere architettoniche. A partire dal 2004, i voti sono potuti pervenire anche via telefono o (in alcuni Paesi) via SMS. Il 1º gennaio 2006, i sette giudici resero note le 21 opere "finaliste" (fra cui l'unica antica meraviglia ancora esistente, le Piramidi di Giza, in seguito esclusa dalla votazione e nominata "Candidata onoraria"). La scelta ufficiale delle Sette Meraviglie del Mondo avvenne a Lisbona il 7 luglio 2007, scelta per la ricorsività del numero 7 (07/07/07).