background preloader

Enûma Eliš

Enûma Eliš
This epic is one of the most important sources for understanding the Babylonian worldview, centered on the supremacy of Marduk and the creation of humankind for the service of the gods. Its primary original purpose, however, is not an exposition of theology or theogony but the elevation of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, above other Mesopotamian gods. The Enûma Eliš exists in various copies from Babylon and Assyria. The version from Ashurbanipal's library dates to the 7th century BCE. The composition of the text probably dates to the Bronze Age, to the time of Hammurabi or perhaps the early Kassite era (roughly 18th to 16th centuries BCE), although some scholars favour a later date of c. 1100 BCE.[2] Summary[edit] When the seven tablets that contain this were first discovered, evidence indicated that it was used as a "ritual", meaning it was recited during a ceremony or celebration. The title, meaning "when on high", is the incipit. Relationship with the Bible[edit] See also[edit] Related:  Creation from chaos myths

Cheonjiwang Bonpuli The Cheonjiwang Bonpuli (Hangul: 천지왕 본풀이, literally 'Chronicles of Cheonjiwang') is a Korean creation myth, traditionally retold by shamans in the small island of Jeju Island. It is one of the best-known Creation myths in the Korean peninsula, and many key elements in the Cheonjiwang Bonpuli can be found in the creation myths of the mainland.[1] Plot[edit] Unlike its title, the supreme deity Cheonjiwang (Hangul: 천지왕), whose name literally means 'King of the Heavens and the Earth', serves mainly as a secondary character. Meanwhile, the king of the mortal human world (Korean: Iseung, literally This World) was Sumyeong Jangja, the first human to tame the beasts. Sumyeong Jangja fought fiercely against the soldiers of Cheonjiwang, but he was finally forced to kneel before Cheonjiwang. Cheonjiwang did not return to the sky immediately, but spent the night in Baekju Halmeom (literally 'Grandmother Baekju')'s cottage. Chongmyeong Agi was fairer than the Seonnyeo, the heavenly fairies.

Global Lithuanian Net. COSMOLOGY OF THE ANCIENT BALTS Read from beginning 2. Religion and mythology of the ancestors of the Baltic nations Assimilation of local people by the immigrants resulted in a rather compact culture with a specific religion and mythology. According to Gimbutienė [2], female deities of the Balts originate from the peaceful Nemunas and Narva cultures; they are characterized by their chtonic nature, close relation with water, earth and the Moon and have life-generating powers. Male divinities show predominantly the elements of the war-oriented Indo-European culture. Together with the Indoeuropean invasion, desacralization of the world was taking place. It is quite probable that at that time (2000-1500 B.C.) the Pamarians and other Baltic ancestors already had a rich mythology and cosmological views. 3. Along with myths describing the origin of the world, its schematic symbolic representation appears. The oldest grave monuments in Lithuania are wooden krikštai, made from a board incised in the form of a tree. Fig. 6. 4.

What Was The First Language Of The World? That's why people believe Latin Greek or Arabic (western languages) is the oldest language.. So the truth is not the one which most of them speak or believe.. Most of the people believe what their parents tell so they tell their own language as oldest... Muslims want to say Christianity originated from Muslim.. So they believe Adam is Muslim. But who said christian or muslim is the first religion? So TAMIL is origin of all languages..The basic reasons are,1. Even after this people will argue about their own kind but I remind them again don't speak what you feel or others tell to you, research and find the truth and go behind it... Thank you....

Creation of man from clay Fashioning a man out of clay According to Genesis 2:7 "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."According to the Qur'an[23:12–15], God created man from clay.According to greek mythology (see Hesiod's poem Theogeny), Prometheus created man from clay, while Athena breathed life into them.According to Chinese mythology (see Chu Ci and Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era), Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children.According to Egyptian mythology the god Khnum creates human children from clay before placing them into their mother's womb. انا خلقنا الانسان من صلصال من حمإ مسنون reference from sour at alhijer holy Quran

Jamshid Jamshid [ǰæmšīd] (Persian: جمشید‎, Jamshīd) (Middle- and New Persian: جم, Jam) (Avestan: Yima) is a mythological figure of Greater Iranian culture and tradition. In tradition and folklore, Jamshid is described as the fourth and greatest king of the epigraphically unattested Pishdadian Dynasty (before Kayanian dynasty). This role is already alluded to in Zoroastrian scripture (e.g. Yasht 19, Vendidad 2), where the figure appears as Avestan language Yima(-Kshaeta) "(radiant) Yima," and from which the name 'Jamshid' is derived. Etymology[edit] The name Jamshid is originally a compound of two parts, Jam and shid, corresponding to the Avestan names Yima and Xšaēta, derived from the proto-Iranian *Yamah Xšaitah. There are also a few functional parallels between Avestan Yima and Sanskrit Yama, for instance, Yima was the son of Vivaŋhat, who in turn corresponds to the Vedic Vivasvat, "he who shines out", a divinity of the Sun. In scripture[edit] In tradition and folklore[edit] Further reading[edit]

World tree From Northern Antiquities, an English translation of the Prose Edda from 1847. Painted by Oluf Olufsen Bagge. World tree. Russian ornament. 19th century. Norse mythology[edit] In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil is the world tree. Siberian culture[edit] The world tree is also represented in the mythologies and folklore of Northern Asia and Siberia. The symbol of the world tree is also common in Tengriism, an ancient religion of Mongols and Turkic peoples. The world tree is visible in the designs of the Crown of Silla, Silla being one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Mesoamerican culture and Indigenous cultures of the Americas[edit] Among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures, the concept of "world trees" is a prevalent motif in Mesoamerican mythical cosmologies and iconography. A common theme in most indigenous cultures of the Americas is a concept of directionality (the horizontal and vertical planes), with the vertical dimension often being represented by a world tree. Other cultures[edit]

Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects. There are about 439 languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate, about half (221) belonging to the Indo-Aryan subbranch.[2] It includes most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the Indian Subcontinent, and was also predominant in ancient Anatolia. With written attestations appearing since the Bronze Age in the form of the Anatolian languages and Mycenaean Greek, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the second-longest recorded history, after the Afro-Asiatic family. Indo-European languages are spoken by almost 3 billion native speakers,[3] the largest number by far for any recognised language family. Etymology[edit] History of Indo-European linguistics[edit] Franz Bopp, pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies. Gaston Coeurdoux and others made observations of the same type.

Gargantua and Pantagruel Rabelais had studied Ancient Greek and he applied it in inventing hundreds of new words in the text, some of which became part of the French language.[2] Wordplay and risque humor abound in his writing. Initial publication[edit] Although different editions divide the work into a varying number of tomes, the original book is a single novel consisting of seven volumes. Plot summary[edit] Pantagruel[edit] The full modern English title for the work commonly known as Pantagruel is The Horrible and Terrifying Deeds and Words of the Very Renowned Pantagruel King of the Dipsodes, Son of the Great Giant Gargantua and in French, Les horribles et épouvantables faits et prouesses du très renommé Pantagruel Roi des Dipsodes, fils du Grand Géant Gargantua. At the beginning of this book, Gargantua's wife dies giving birth to Pantagruel, who grows to be as giant and scholarly as his father. Gargantua[edit] The Third Book[edit] The Fourth Book[edit] The group sail to East Asia, and buy many exotic animals. M.

Kumulipo In ancient Hawaiian mythology, the Kumulipo is a chant in the Hawaiian language telling a creation story.[1] It also includes a genealogy of the members of Hawaiian royalty. Creation chant[edit] Many cultures have their own beliefs on how the earth came to be created. He Kumulipo means "A source of darkness or origin".[1] In some cultures, children are brought up thinking that the dark is a bad place, one to avoid. In the Kumulipo the world was created over a cosmic night. Years later Queen Liliʻuokalani described the chant as a prayer of the development of the universe and the ancestry of the Hawaiians.[4] Liliʻuokalani translated the chant under house arrest in Iolani Palace. The Kumulipo is a total of 2102 lines long, in honor of Lonoikamakahiki, who created peace for all when he was born. Divisions[edit] The Kumulipo is divided into sixteen wā, sections. These are the first four lines of the Kumulipo: Births in each wā[edit] The births in each age include:[7] Comparative literature[edit]

Tree worship Tree worship (dendrolatry) refers to the tendency of many societies throughout history to worship or otherwise mythologize trees. Trees have played an important role in many of the world's mythologies and religions, and have been given deep and sacred meanings throughout the ages. Human beings, observing the growth and death of trees, the elasticity of their branches, the sensitivity and the annual decay and revival of their foliage, see them as powerful symbols of growth, decay and resurrection. The image of the Tree of life is also a favourite in many mythologies. Other examples of trees featured in mythology are the Banyan and the Peepal (Ficus religiosa) trees in Hinduism, and the modern tradition of the Christmas Tree in Germanic mythology, the Tree of Knowledge of Judaism and Christianity, and the Bodhi tree in Buddhism. Trees are a necessary attribute of the archetypical locus amoenus in all cultures. Wishing trees[edit] World tree[edit] Religion and folklore[edit] In film[edit]

Kish tablet The Kish tablet is inscribed with proto-cuneiform signs, and is frequently referred to as the oldest known written document. It is sometimes dated to ca. 3500 BC (middle Uruk period), but being found from uncontrollable context makes archaeological dating of the tablet impossible. However division to separate cases makes it likely that it is from a later period than Uruk IV (ca. 3350-3200 BC).[1] Several thousands of proto-cuneiform documents dating to Uruk IV and III periods (ca. 3350-3000 BC) have been found in Uruk. The writing is still purely pictographic, and represents a transitional stage between proto-writing and the emergence of the partly syllabic writing of the cuneiform script proper. The "proto-literate period" of Egypt and Mesopotamia is taken to span about 3500 to 2900 BC. See also[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit] A.

Strange loop A strange loop arises when, by moving only upwards or downwards through a hierarchical system, one finds oneself back to where one started. Strange loops may involve self-reference and paradox. The concept of a strange loop was proposed and extensively discussed by Douglas Hofstadter in Gödel, Escher, Bach, and is further elaborated in Hofstadter's book I Am a Strange Loop, published in 2007. A tangled hierarchy is a hierarchical consciousness system in which a strange loop appears. Definitions[edit] A strange loop is a hierarchy of levels, each of which is linked to at least one other by some type of relationship. In I Am a Strange Loop, Hofstadter defines strange loops as follows: In cognitive science[edit] Hofstadter argues that the psychological self arises out of a similar kind of paradox. Strangeness[edit] Downward causality[edit] Hofstadter claims a similar "flipping around of causality" appears to happen in minds possessing self-consciousness. Examples[edit] See also[edit] Tanenbaum, P.

Related: