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Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning
Diagram of operant conditioning Operant conditioning separates itself from classical conditioning because it is highly complex, integrating positive and negative conditioning into its practices; whereas, classical conditioning focuses only on either positive or negative conditioning but not both together. Another dubbing of operant conditioning is instrumental learning. Instrumental conditioning was first discovered and published by Jerzy Konorski and was also referred to as Type II reflexes. Mechanisms of instrumental conditioning suggest that the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength. The expressions “operant behavior” and “respondent behavior" were popularized by B.F. Operant behavior operates on the environment and is maintained by its antecedents and consequences, while classical conditioning is maintained by conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors, which are elicited by antecedent conditions. Historical notes[edit] Thorndike's law of effect[edit] Skinner[edit] 1. Related:  Animal IntelligenceDevelopment of Cognitive Behavioral theoryThe Human Psyche

Ravens have social abilities previously only seen in humans Humans and their primate cousins are well known for their intelligence and social abilities. You hear them called bird-brained, but birds have demonstrated a great deal of intelligence in many tasks. However, little is known about their social skills. A new study shows that ravens are socially savvier than we give them credit for. They are able to work out the social dynamics of other raven groups, something which only humans had shown the ability to do. Bullying in the community Jorg Massen and his colleagues of the University of Vienna wanted to find out more about about bird's social skills, so they studied ravens, which live in social groups. Ravens within a community squabble over their ranking in the group, as higher ranked ravens have better access to food and other resources. These confrontations are initiated by high-ranking ravens, who square up to low-ranking birds and emit a specific call to assert their dominance. Relationship stress Television watching skills

Reinforcement Diagram of operant conditioning Although in many cases a reinforcing stimulus is a rewarding stimulus which is "valued" or "liked" by the individual (e.g., money received from a slot machine, the taste of the treat, the euphoria produced by an addictive drug), this is not a requirement. Indeed, reinforcement does not even require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus.[1] Furthermore, stimuli that are "rewarding" or "liked" are not always reinforcing: if an individual eats at a fast food restaurant (response) and likes the taste of the food (stimulus), but believes it is bad for their health, they may not eat it again and thus it was not reinforcing in that condition.[citation needed] Thus, reinforcement occurs only if there is an observable strengthening in behavior. In most cases reinforcement refers to an enhancement of behavior but this term may also refer to an enhancement of memory. Introduction[edit] B.F. Brief history[edit] Reinforcement[edit]

Macdonald triad The Macdonald triad (also known as the triad of sociopathy or the homicidal triad) is a set of three behavioral characteristics that has been suggested, if all three or any combination of two, are present together, to be predictive of or associated with, later violent tendencies, particularly with relation to serial offenses. The triad was first proposed by psychiatrist J.M. Macdonald in "The Threat to Kill", a 1963 paper in the American Journal of Psychiatry.[1] Small-scale studies conducted by psychiatrists Daniel Hellman and Nathan Blackman, and then FBI agents John E. Douglas and Robert K. Ressler along with Dr. Ann Burgess, claimed substantial evidence for the association of these childhood patterns with later predator behavior.[2] Although it remains an influential and widely taught theory, subsequent research has generally not validated this line of thinking.[3][4] Firesetting[edit] Cruelty to animals[edit] Enuresis[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Pascal's Wager Blaise Pascal Pascal's Wager is an argument in apologetic philosophy which was devised by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician, and physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–1662). It posits that humans all bet with their lives either that God exists or does not exist. Given the possibility that God actually does exist and assuming the infinite gain or loss associated with belief in God or with unbelief, a rational person should live as though God exists and seek to believe in God. Pascal formulated the wager within a Christian framework. The wager[edit] The philosophy uses the following logic (excerpts from Pensées, part III, §233): "God is, or He is not"A Game is being played... where heads or tails will turn up.According to reason, you can defend neither of the propositions.You must wager. Pascal asks the reader to analyze the position of mankind, this crisis of existence and lack of complete understanding. Explanation[edit] The wager is described in Pensées this way:

Jac for Vets Researcher decodes prairie dog language, discovers they've been talking about us You might not think it to look at them, but prairie dogs and humans actually share an important commonality -- and it's not just their complex social structures, or their habit of standing up on two feet (aww, like people). As it turns out, prairie dogs actually have one of the most sophisticated forms of vocal communication in the natural world, really not so unlike our own. After more than 25 years of studying the calls of prairie dog in the field, one researcher managed to decode just what these animals are saying. And the results show that praire dogs aren't only extremely effective communicators, they also pay close attention to detail. According to Dr. And, when they're talking about humans, that might not always be flattering. "For example, a human alarm call not only contains information about the intruder being a human, but also contains information about the size, shape (thin or fat), and color of clothes the human is wearing," says Dr. For more information on Dr.

Edward Thorndike Edward Lee "Ted" Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American Psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. His work on Comparative psychology and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism and helped lay the scientific foundation for modern educational psychology. He also worked on solving industrial problems, such as employee exams and testing. Early life[edit] Thorndike, born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts,[3] was the son of a Methodist minister in Lowell, Massachusetts.[4] Thorndike graduated from The Roxbury Latin School (1891), in West Roxbury, Massachusetts and from Wesleyan University (B.S. 1895).[3] He earned an M.A. at Harvard University in 1897.[3] While at Harvard, he was interested in how animals learn (ethology), and worked with William James. On August 29, 1900, he wed Elizabeth Moulton and they had five children.[7] Connectionism[edit] Adult learning[edit] Thorndike's theory of learning[edit]

The Perception of Color - What the Colors You Wear Say About You We've surveyed a thousand people on how they perceive other people based on the colour of the clothes they choose. It's thrown up some fascinating conclusions. It might be time to promote colour to the top consideration - if you care about how you're perceived by others, that is. Black, for example, might have connotations of death, gloom, and forest gateaux, but it's a powerful performer in the eyes of the public, who see it as a serious, reliable and solid player, ideal for interviews and first dates. But if you're a lover of all things pink, you might want to keep your pink thing private. That's because the public see it as a fluffy, frivolous colour, unsuitable for almost any social occasion and even likely to signify a lack of intelligence. These are only perceptions, of course. Let's have a look at some of our most interesting findings. Dressing to Impress: First Dates and Interviews "You never get a second chance to make a first impression." Which colour most inspires confidence? Pink

List of unsolved problems in philosophy This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in philosophy. Clearly, unsolved philosophical problems exist in the lay sense (e.g. "What is the meaning of life?", "Where did we come from?", "What is reality?", etc.). Aesthetics[edit] Essentialism[edit] In art, essentialism is the idea that each medium has its own particular strengths and weaknesses, contingent on its mode of communication. Art objects[edit] This problem originally arose from the practice rather than theory of art. While it is easy to dismiss these assertions, further investigation[who?] Epistemology[edit] Epistemological problems are concerned with the nature, scope and limitations of knowledge. Gettier problem[edit] In 1963, however, Edmund Gettier published an article in the periodical Analysis entitled "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?" In response to Gettier's article, numerous philosophers have offered modified criteria for "knowledge." Infinite regression[edit] Molyneux problem[edit] Münchhausen trilemma[edit]

The Venus Project Seminar (25 August 2013) Do Dogs Speak Human? What's the Big Idea? Perhaps the better question is, do humans speak dog? Either way, the debate over whether language is unique to humans, or a faculty also possessed by wild and domestic animals from dogs to apes to dolphins, is an interesting one. The answer depends on exactly how we define "language," and who's doing the talking, says David Bellos, the Booker prize-winning translator. Watch our video interview with David Bellos: Animal signalling systems are not (as far as we can tell) as complex as human language, nor do they fit the linguist's definition of a language -- the existence of grammar, syntax, and sound units. But dogs do have many ways of telling us things. To acquire language, kids use a strategy called "fast mapping" -- forming quick, rough hypotheses about the meaning of new words after just one or two exposures. Four weeks after the initial exposure, Rico was still able to retrieve the items by name. What's the Significance? “Imagine a dog. What do you think?

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