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Memento mori

Memento mori
Earthly Vanity and Divine Salvation by Hans Memling. This triptych contrasts earthly beauty and luxury with the prospect of death and hell. The outer panels of Rogier van der Weyden's Braque Triptych shows the skull of the patron displayed in the inner panels. Memento mori (Latin: "remember (that you have) to die"[2]) is the medieval Latin theory and practice of reflection on mortality, especially as a means of considering the vanity of earthly life and the transient nature of all earthly goods and pursuits. In art, memento mori are artistic or symbolic reminders of mortality.[2] In the European Christian art context, "the expression... developed with the growth of Christianity, which emphasized Heaven, Hell, and salvation of the soul in the afterlife Historic usage[edit] Classical[edit] Plato's Phaedo, where the death of Socrates is recounted, introduces the idea that the proper practice of philosophy is "about nothing else but dying and being dead Europe — Medieval through Victorian[edit] Related:  Wikipedia A

Peter Pan Origin[edit] Cover of 1915 edition of J. M. Barrie's novel, first published in 1911, illustrated by F. D. Bedford. Peter Pan first appeared in a section of The Little White Bird, a 1902 novel written by J.M Barrie for adults. The character's best-known adventure first appeared on 27 December 1904, in the form of a stage play entitled Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up. Following the success of the 1904 play, Barrie's publishers, Hodder and Stoughton, extracted chapters 13–18 of The Little White Bird and republished them in 1906 under the title Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, with the addition of illustrations by Arthur Rackham.[1] Physical appearance[edit] In Peter Pan in Scarlet (released internationally in 2006), Geraldine McCaughrean adds to the description of his appearance, mentioning his blue eyes, and saying his hair is light (or at least any colour lighter than black). Age[edit] The notion of a boy who would never grow up was based on J.M. Personality[edit] Abilities[edit]

Latin mottos - Generator of custom Latin phrases! Short Latin sayings have been traditionally used in heraldry as slogans and mottos (life mottos, family mottos, state mottos, senior class mottos etc.). Hence Semper fidelis, the Marine Corps motto, Carpe diem, a life motto for Casanova types and Memento mori, a stern reminder to all. If you desire to make your own Latin motto, but don't want to go back to school and take a Latin course, don't feel like learning Latin independently, and have no intention to employ professional translation services -- this set of scripts is designed to offer some help. Share 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Although this Latin motto generator is primarily intended for educational purpuses, you are welcome to become inspired by some cool life mottos you create here. You will quickly recognize the patterns used in this generator - they are the same as in many popular mottos. Additional patterns will gradually become available, as I come up with ideas for additional patterns. // Looking for a "Lorem ipsum" generator?

Kitchener's Army The New Army, often referred to as Kitchener's Army or, disparagingly, Kitchener's Mob,[a] was an (initially) all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom following the outbreak of hostilities in the First World War. It was created on the recommendation of Horatio Kitchener, then Secretary of State for War. Origins[edit] 1914 poster describing terms of enlistment Contrary to the popular belief that the war would be over by Christmas 1914, Kitchener predicted a long and brutal war. Those recruited into the New Army were used to form complete Battalions under existing British Army Regiments. Recruitment[edit] All five of the full army groups (meaning a group of divisions similar in size to an army, not a group of armies) were made up of volunteer recruits, which included the famous Pals' Battalions. By the beginning of 1916, the queues were not so long anymore. Training[edit] The Regiments also suffered from a lack of officers to train them. Later developments[edit] Structure[edit] [edit]

Cult of the Supreme Being The Cult of the Supreme Being (French: Culte de l'Être suprême)a was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution.[1] It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic.[2] Origins[edit] The French Revolution had given birth to many radical changes in France, but one of the most fundamental for the hitherto Catholic nation was the official rejection of religion. This rejection of all godhead appalled the rectitudinous Robespierre. Inscription on the typanum of the Cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand, saying: "The French people recognize the Supreme Being and the immortality of the soul". Religious tenets[edit] Robespierre believed that reason is only a means to an end, and the singular end is virtue. Revolutionary impact[edit] Festival of the Supreme Being[edit] Legacy[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit] Bibliography[edit] Further reading[edit] External links[edit] The Supreme Being, by Maximilien Robespierre.

John Monash Early life[edit] First World War[edit] Gallipoli[edit] Monash during the First World War Western Front[edit] Lieutenant General Sir John Monash later described the recapture of the town of Villers-Bretonneux on 25 April 1918 after the Germans had overrun the 8th British Division under General William Heneker as the turning-point of the war. Commander of the Australian Corps[edit] Monash, despite not being a professionally trained officer, was a noted advocate of the co-ordinated use of infantry, aircraft, artillery and tanks. By the end of the war Monash had acquired an outstanding reputation for intellect, personal magnetism, management and ingenuity. Impact[edit] Monash's impact on Australian military thinking was significant in three areas. After the war[edit] Soon after the conclusion of hostilities Monash was appointed Director-General of Repatriation and Demobilisation, heading a newly created department to carry out the repatriation of the Australian troops from Britain and Europe.

Hindenburg Line The Hindenburg Line was built as a precaution, rather than as part of a policy of withdrawal but by the beginning of 1917, the strategic situation made a retirement inevitable. The German manpower shortage on the Western Front was acute, despite the transfer of divisions from Russia, which increased the number of divisions on the Western Front to 133 on 25 January 1917. Greater production of explosives, ammunition and weapons by the German war economy, to provide the means by which the Allied Materialschlacht (battle of equipment) could be countered, had been ordered in the Hindenburg Programme of August 1916. Production had not sufficiently increased over the winter, with only 60% of the programme expected to be fulfilled by the summer of 1917. A 35-day Alberich timetable was prepared, for the plan to abandon the Noyon Salient. Infrastructure in the salient was destroyed and buildings demolished from 9 February – 15 March. Background[edit] Battle of the Somme 1916[edit] Prelude[edit]

Dutch Republic The Dutch Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden), Republic of the United Netherlands or Republic of the Seven United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën), was a republic in Europe existing from 1581, when part of the Netherlands separated from Spanish rule, until 1795. It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces (Verenigde Provinciën), Federated Dutch Provinces (Foederatae Belgii Provinciae), and Dutch Federation (Belgica Foederata). History[edit] For history and links to the earlier history of each of the provinces, see Seventeen Provinces. Most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. Economic perspective[edit] Dutch East-India trading ship 1600 Politics[edit] Religion[edit]

Louis XIV of France Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi-Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1643 until his death.[1] His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a major country in European history.[2] Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661 after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[3] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital. During Louis's reign, France was the leading European power and it fought three major wars: the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of the Spanish Succession. Upon his death just days before his seventy-seventh birthday, Louis was succeeded by his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis XV. Early years[edit]

Battle of Passchendaele A campaign in Flanders was controversial in 1917 and has remained so. The British Prime Minister Lloyd George opposed the offensive, as did General Foch the French Chief of the General Staff. The British commander Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, did not receive approval for the Flanders operation from the War Cabinet until 25 July. Background[edit] Flanders 1914–1917[edit] In December 1914, the Admiralty began discussions with the War Office, for a combined operation to occupy the Belgian coast to the Dutch frontier, by an attack along the coast combined with a landing at Ostend. Nivelle planned an operation in three parts, preliminary offensives to pin German reserves by the British at Arras and the French between the Somme and the Oise, a French breakthrough offensive on the Aisne, then pursuit and exploitation. Strategic background[edit] Prelude[edit] Geography and climate[edit] The progression of the battle and the general disposition of troops British plans for a Flanders campaign[edit]

Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette In the American Revolution, La Fayette served as a major-general in the Continental Army under George Washington. Wounded during the Battle of Brandywine, he still managed to organize a successful retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island. La Fayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release from prison in 1797. He became an American citizen during his lifetime, and he received honorary United States citizenship in 2002.[5] For his accomplishments in the service of both France and the United States, he is known as "The Hero of the Two Worlds". Early life[edit] La Fayette's father, struck by a cannonball at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia, died on 1 August 1759.[11] La Fayette became Lord of Chavaniac, but the estate went to his mother. La Fayette studied at the Collège du Plessis (Lycée Louis-le-Grand) until 1771, while being a trainee to become an officer at the Musketeers of military Household of King of France. American Revolution[edit]

Ötzi Ötzi (German pronunciation: [ˈœtsi] ( ); also called Ötzi the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, Homo tyrolensis, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE.[2][3] The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence Ötzi, near the Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy.[4] He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy. Discovery Ötzi the Iceman while still frozen in the glacier, photographed by Helmut Simon upon the discovery of the body in September 1991 46°46′45.8″N 10°50′25.1″E / 46.779389°N 10.840306°E / 46.779389; 10.840306.[7] The province of South Tyrol therefore claimed property rights, but agreed to let Innsbruck University finish its scientific examinations. Scientific analyses Body Blood

Fatimah Fāṭimah bint Muḥammad (/ˈfætəmə, ˈfɑːtiːˌmɑː/; Arabic: فاطمة‎ Fāṭimah;[pronunciation 1] born c. 605[7][8] or 615[9] – died 28 August 632) was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah, wife of Ali and mother of Hasan and Hussein,[10] and one of the members of Ahl al-Bayt.[7][8] She became the object of great veneration by all Muslims, because she lived closest to her father and supported him in his difficulties, because of the historical importance of her husband and her two sons, and because she is the only member of Muhammad's family that gave him descendants, numerously spread through the Islamic world and known as Sayyids. The 11th century dynasty ruling Egypt at the time of the Crusades, the Fatimids, claimed descent from Fatima.[7] For Muslims, Fatimah is an inspiring example and Fatimah is one of the most popular girl's names throughout the Muslim world.[11] She was involved in three significant political actions, each recorded in almost all sources. Birth[edit]