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Memento mori

Memento mori
Earthly Vanity and Divine Salvation by Hans Memling. This triptych contrasts earthly beauty and luxury with the prospect of death and hell. The outer panels of Rogier van der Weyden's Braque Triptych shows the skull of the patron displayed in the inner panels. The bones rest on a brick, a symbol of his former industry and achievement.[1] Memento mori (Latin: "remember (that you have) to die"[2]) is the medieval Latin theory and practice of reflection on mortality, especially as a means of considering the vanity of earthly life and the transient nature of all earthly goods and pursuits. It is related to the ars moriendi ("The Art of Dying") and related literature. In art, memento mori are artistic or symbolic reminders of mortality.[2] In the European Christian art context, "the expression... developed with the growth of Christianity, which emphasized Heaven, Hell, and salvation of the soul in the afterlife Historic usage[edit] Classical[edit] Europe — Medieval through Victorian[edit]

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Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples[3] or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history, but reactionary forces had regained control, and the revolutions collapsed typically within a year. The revolutions were essentially bourgeois-democratic in nature with the aim of removing the old feudal structures and the creation of independent national states. The revolutionary wave began in France in February, and immediately spread to most of Europe and parts of Latin America. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among the revolutionaries in different countries.

Post mortem photography: Morbid gallery reveals how Victorians took photos of their DEAD relatives posing on couches, beds and even in coffins Post-mortem photography was popular among the middle class in the late 19th centurySome subjects had their eyes propped open to give the effect that they were still alive By Nick Enoch Published: 16:51 GMT, 29 January 2013 | Updated: 08:40 GMT, 30 January 2013 Dressed in his Sunday best, a Victorian gentleman with a faraway look in his eyes sits in a chair while his photograph is taken. But if his posture seems rather unnatural, it is for good reason. He is dead.

French Revolution of 1848 Louis-Philippe I, the last King of the French Louis Blanc, one of the two workers' representatives in the Assembly of the Second Republic The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy (1830–48) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. Post-mortem photography A post-mortem photograph of a middle-aged man. The body is arranged so as to appear lifelike (circa 1860). Post-mortem photography (also known as memorial portraiture or a mourning portrait) is the practice of photographing the recently deceased. These photographs of deceased loved ones were a normal part of American and European culture in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Commissioned by grieving families, postmortem photographs not only helped in the grieving process, but often represented the only visual remembrance of the deceased and were among a family's most precious possessions.[1]

Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794),[1] also known as The Terror (French: la Terreur), was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris),[2] and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.[3] The guillotine (called the "National Razor") became the symbol of the revolutionary cause, strengthened by a string of executions: King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, the Girondins, Philippe Égalité (Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans), and Madame Roland, and others such as pioneering chemist Antoine Lavoisier, lost their lives under its blade. During 1794, revolutionary France was beset with conspiracies by internal and foreign enemies. Origins and causes[edit] The Terror[edit]

Tintype Tintype portrait in a paper mat, taken at Pease's Nantasket Tintype Gallery, ca. 1900 A tintype, also known as a melainotype or ferrotype, is a photograph made by creating a direct positive on a thin sheet of iron coated with a dark lacquer or enamel and used as the support for the photographic emulsion. Tintypes enjoyed their widest use during the 1860s and 1870s, but lesser use of the medium persisted into the early 20th century and it has been revived as a novelty in the 21st. Tintype portraits were at first usually made in a formal photographic studio, like daguerreotypes and other early types of photographs, but later they were most commonly made by photographers working in booths or the open air at fairs and carnivals, as well as by itinerant sidewalk photographers.

The Great Terror The Great Terror: A Reassessment by Robert Conquest The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties is a book by British historian Robert Conquest, published in 1968. It gave rise to an alternate title of the period in Soviet history known as the Great Purge. A revised version of the book, called The Great Terror: A Reassessment, was printed in 1990 after Conquest was able to amend the text, having consulted recently opened Soviet archives.

zeng han The philosophical term “hyperreality” derives from the French philosopher Jean-Baudrillard’s creation, referring to the blurring of the distinction between reality and falsity. In the Greek language, “hyper” means “beyond” or “transcending”, with the connotation that it is of a higher level of reality, therefore implying a reality that is made in accordance with a model. Hyperreality means more than imitation, and it is not produced, rather it is always in the state of having been reproduced. Hence, reality is now no longer a natural being , but artificially created or re-created as in the case of a simulated circumstance. This does not mean, however, that it has become untrue or incredible, but that it is more than reality, a sort of reality that is carefully disposed of in a hallucinatory similarity. Such descriptions attached to postmodern society by Baudrillard 30 years ago, seem like a self-fulfilling prophecy in China today.

Great Purge Partial view of a plaque with photos of victims of the Great Purge who were shot in the Butovo firing range near Moscow. The photos were taken after the arrest of each victim. The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Russian: Большой террор) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938. It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and arbitrary executions. In Russian historiography, the period of the most intense purge, 1937–1938, is called Yezhovshchina (Russian: Ежовщина; literally, "Yezhov phenomenon",[note 1] commonly translated as "times of Yezhov" or "doings of Yezhov"), after Nikolai Yezhov, the head of the Soviet secret police, NKVD. In the Western world, Robert Conquest's 1968 book The Great Terror popularized that phrase.

zeng han The series of Cool Shanshui is my way of observation and consideration to Chinese traditional landscape painting, at the same time the outcome of my observing and describing the contemporary "Shanshui" while using the product of western science and culture--photography. The word of SHANSHUI means mountain and water in China,not only means the real mountain and water in reality,it reflects more of people's imagination and yearn towards the natural landscape.Landscape Painting is the most important component part in Chinese art history.For the Chinese intelligentsia, Shanshui (the coexistence of mountain and water - a kind of ideal landscape) have long been considered the key to unlocking the mysteries of the universe and reconciling the life of the individual and of society. Cool,its original meaning in Chinese is cruel,but with a direct translation of Cool,it also means fashionable and stylish. 酷山水系列,是我试图以中国传统山水画的观察和思考方式,但同时又用“摄影”这一西方科技文化的产物,来观看描绘当下中国的“山水”。

Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor Early life[edit] Nancy Witcher Langhorne was born at the Langhorne House in Danville, Virginia. She was the eighth of eleven children born to railroad businessman Chiswell Dabney Langhorne and his wife Nancy Witcher Keene. zeng han Soul Stealer 叫魂 | Photographer: ZENG Han + YANG Changhong This story originates from some dreams of us. At that time we were discussing how to find our origin in some “dreamlands” rooted from history by means of photography. Then, the “Land Play” in Guizhou(west south in china) villages, called “Chinese play’s live fossil ” came into our minds. We hope to use this old play to represent the ancient warfare scene, and let the actors wear masks and then communicate with the historical figures just like what psychics do. Therefore, photography becomes an amazing time machine, moving towards different phases in history.