Arthur Schopenhauer Life Schopenhauer's birthplace house, ul. Św. Ducha (formerly Heiligegeistgasse) In 1814, Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and Representation (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung). While in Berlin, Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in a lawsuit initiated by a woman named Caroline Marquet. She asked for damages, alleging that Schopenhauer had pushed her. In 1821, he fell in love with nineteen-year old opera singer, Caroline Richter (called Medon), and had a relationship with her for several years. Schopenhauer had a notably strained relationship with his mother Johanna Schopenhauer. Grave at Frankfurt Hauptfriedhof Schopenhauer had a robust constitution, but in 1860 his health began to deteriorate. Thought Philosophy of the "Will" Schopenhauer in 1815, second of the critical five years of the initial composition of Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung A key focus of Schopenhauer was his investigation of individual motivation. Mathematics 
Georgetown University Georgetown University is a private research university in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1789, it is the oldest Jesuit and Catholic university in the United States. Georgetown's main campus, located in Washington's Georgetown neighborhood, is noted for Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark in the Romanesque revival style. Campus organizations include the country's largest student-run business and largest student-run financial institution. History Founding Civil War Union soldiers across the Potomac River from Georgetown University in 1861 Enrollment did not recover from the war until the presidency of Patrick Francis Healy from 1873 to 1881. Expansion Besides expansion of the University, Georgetown also aimed to expand its resources and student body. Jesuit tradition Students studying outside Wolfington Hall Jesuit Residence Academics Healy Hall houses classrooms and the university's executive body. Faculty University president John J.
Der Erlkönig "Erlkönig" (also called "Der Erlkönig") is a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. It depicts the death of a child assailed by a supernatural being, the Erlking or "Erlkönig" (suggesting the literal translation "alder king", but see below). It was originally composed by Goethe as part of a 1782 Singspiel entitled Die Fischerin. The poem has been used as the text for Lieder (art songs for voice and piano) by many classical composers, with Franz Schubert's rendition, his Opus 1 (D. 328), being the best-known one. Other notable settings are by members of Goethe's circle, including the actress Corona Schröter (1782), Andreas Romberg (1793), Johann Friedrich Reichardt (1794) and Carl Friedrich Zelter (1797). Beethoven attempted to set it to music but abandoned the effort; his sketch however was complete enough to be published in a completion by Reinhold Becker (1897). Summary An anxious young boy is being carried home at night by his father on horseback. Text The legend
Ruhollah Khomeini Not to be confused with Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini (Persian روح الله خمینی, Persian pronunciation: [ruːholˈlɑːhe χomeiˈniː], 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the West as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. Khomeini was a marja ("source of emulation") in Twelver Shi'a Islam, author of more than forty books, but is primarily known for his political activities. He was named Man of the Year in 1979 by American newsmagazine TIME for his international influence, and has been described as the "virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture" where he remains a controversial figure. Early life Background
Baruch Spinoza Biography Family and community origins Spinoza's ancestors were of Sephardic Jewish descent, and were a part of the community of Portuguese Jews that had settled in the city of Amsterdam in the wake of the Alhambra Decree in Spain (1492) and the Portuguese Inquisition (1536), which had resulted in forced conversions and expulsions from the Iberian peninsula. Attracted by the Decree of Toleration issued in 1579 by the Union of Utrecht, Portuguese "conversos" first sailed to Amsterdam in 1593 and promptly reconverted to Judaism. In 1598 permission was granted to build a synagogue, and in 1615 an ordinance for the admission and government of the Jews was passed. As a community of exiles, the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam were highly proud of their identity. Spinoza's father, Miguel (Michael), and his uncle, Manuel, then moved to Amsterdam where they resumed the practice of Judaism. 17th-century Holland Early life Expulsion from the Jewish community
Louis Bertrand Castel Louis Bertrand Castel (15 November 1688 – 9 January 1757) was a French mathematician born in Montpellier, and entered the order of the Jesuits in 1703. Having studied literature, he afterwards devoted himself entirely to mathematics and natural philosophy. He wrote several scientific works, that which attracted most attention at the time being his Optique des couleurs (1740), or treatise on the melody of colors. He also wrote Traité de physique sur la pesanteur universelle des corps (1724), Mathématique universelle (1728), and a critical account of the system of Sir Isaac Newton in 1743. Work in optics Castel's 1740 comparison of Newton's spectral color description with his explanation in terms of the interaction of light and dark, which Goethe later developed into his Theory of Colours. The Ocular Harpsichord Early on, Castel illustrated his optical theories with a proposal for a Clavecin pour les yeux (Ocular Harpsichord, 1725). See also References
Devil (Islam) In Islam, the Devil is known as Iblīs (Arabic: إبليس, plural: ابالسة abālisah) or Shayṭān (Arabic: شيطان, plural: شياطين shayāṭīn). In Islam Iblis is a jinni who refused to bow to Adam (ʾĀdam). The primary characteristic of the Devil, besides hubris, is that he has no power other than the power to cast evil suggestions into the chests of men, women, and jinn, although the Quran does mention appointing jinn to assist those who are far from God in a general context. "We made the evil ones friends (only) to those without faith. Iblis probably comes from the Greek Diabolos (Devil, Satan; literally, the accuser) but Islam traditionally derived the name from the Arabic verbal root balasa بَلَسَ, meaning 'he despaired'; therefore, the meaning of Iblīs would be 'he/it that causes despair'. In popular Islamic culture, "Shaytan" (Arabic: شيطان), is often simply translated as "the Devil," but the term can refer to any of the jinn who disobeyed God and followed Iblīs. G. "Iblis".
Parlour music Parlour music is a type of popular music which, as the name suggests, is intended to be performed in the parlours of middle-class homes by amateur singers and pianists. Disseminated as sheet music, its heyday came in the 19th century, as a result of a steady increase in the number of households with enough surplus cash to purchase musical instruments and instruction in music, and with the leisure time and cultural motivation to engage in recreational music-making. Its popularity waned in the 20th century as the phonograph record and radio replaced sheet music as the most common method of dissemination of popular music. This is the middlebrow and lowbrow music from which European classical music began to gradually and eventually self-consciously distance itself beginning around 1790. (1989, p.4, 17-18, 321) Front cover of "Just Awearyin' for You" (published 1901), a widely selling example of a parlor song. Mediant-octave mode examples Sources Hamm, Charles.
Famous INFJs - CelebrityTypes.com Plato Greek philosopher, student of Socrates, mentor of Aristotle Plato: "You cannot conceive The Many without The One." Plato: "As a young man I reflected a lot about how society could be improved ... but I refrained from action." Felix Williams: "Modern Western scholars, believing Plato to be like them ... construe him as a rationalist and ignore the mystical element in his writing that is so plainly there." C.G. Carl Gustav Jung Psychiatrist, author of 'Psychological Types', student of Freud, mentor of Von Franz Jung: "As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light in the darkness of mere being." Jung: "The creation of something new is not accomplished by the intellect but ... from inner necessity." Jung: "Women are far more 'psychological' than men, who are usually satisfied with logic alone." Jung: "The intellectually detached classifying point of view is just the thing to be avoided." Niels Bohr Physicist, mentor of Heisenberg Mahatma Gandhi Thomas Jefferson
Theodor Goldstücker In 1838 he removed to Bonn, and, after graduating at Königsberg in 1840, proceeded to Paris; in 1842 he edited a German translation of the Prabodhacandrodaya by Kṛṣṇamiśra Yati (fl. c. 1050-1100), a standard text widely read by Sanskrit students in India. From 1847 to 1850 he resided at Berlin, where his talents and scholarship were recognized by Alexander von Humboldt, but where his political views caused the authorities to regard him with suspicion. He was asked to leave Berlin during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states. In 1850 he moved to London at the invitation of H. H. He died in London. As Literary Remains some of his writings were published in two volumes (London, 1879), but his papers were left to the India Office with the request that they were not to be published until 1920. The Dictionary of National Biography includes an informative and perceptive entry on Goldstücker by N.
Faber Birren Faber Birren (1900 – 1988) was an American author and consultant on color and color theory. Life Faber Birren was born in Chicago, Illinois on 11 September 1900, the son of Joseph P. Birren, a landscape painter, and Crescentia (Lang) Birren, a pianist. He attended the Art Institute of Chicago while in high school and the University of Chicago for two years where he studied color theory. He began publishing articles on color in 1924; his first book, Color in Vision was published in 1928. In 1934 he established his own company and worked as an industrial color consultant, advising clients on the psychological effects of color on safety, employee morale, productivity and sales. His recommendations included changing wall and interior colors to reduce visual fatigue, and using bright colors on machinery to reduce accidents. DuPont, Monsanto, and General Electric were among his clients as well as the military. Personal Bibliography Legacy References
Māori people The Māori (Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi], /ˈmɑːʊəri/) are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. The Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages at some time between 1250 and 1300 CE. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture that became known as the "Māori", with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups, based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced, and later a prominent warrior culture emerged. The arrival of Europeans to New Zealand starting from the 17th century brought enormous change to the Māori way of life. In the 2013 census, there were approximately 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up roughly 15% of the national population. Etymology Naming and self-naming History Origins
Song cycle The term originated to describe cycles of art songs (often known by the German term "Lieder") in classical music, and has been extended to apply to popular music. Classical music The first generally accepted example of a song cycle is Beethoven's An die ferne Geliebte (Op. 98, 1816), along with the song cycle Die Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten (J. 200-3, \Op. 46, 1816) by Weber. The genre was firmly established by the cycles of Schubert: his Die schöne Müllerin (1823) and Winterreise (1827), based on poems by Wilhelm Müller, are among his most greatly admired works. Schumann's great cycles were all composed in 1840. Wolf made the composition of song collections by a single poet something of a speciality although only the shorter Italian Songbook and Spanish Songbook are performed at a single sitting, and Eisler's Hollywood Liederbuch also falls into the category of anthology. Popular music Musical theater Bibliography Ruth O. References
Four Temperaments - Overview, Summaries, Careers, Statistics The idea of four temperaments has for many centuries been proposed by psychologists, philosophers and other thinkers as a way to group and describe people with reasonable accuracy. Your temperament can be thought of as a general overview of your personality. Each temperament contains four personality types that are more similar to each other than they are the other personality types. If temperament is the "big picture" then personality type is the details. Temperaments in the Population This chart represents an estimation of temperaments among the population and gender. As mentioned in the personality theory article, your temperament can be identified by the strength of your preferences. Personality Assessment Discover Your Temperament and More Take the assessment to learn your temperament, personality type, preferences and more. The Four Temperaments A summary of each of the four temperaments along with common career matches and famous people is provided below. Sensing (S) + Judging (J)