Anschluss German and Austrian border police dismantle a border post. The Anschluss [ˈʔanʃlʊs] ( ) (spelled Anschluß at the time of the event, and until the German orthography reform of 1996; German for "connection" or union, political annexation), also known as the Anschluss Österreichs ( The Anschluss Austria was annexed into the German Third Reich on 12 March 1938. Under considerable pressure from both Austrian and German Nazis, Austria's Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg tried to hold a referendum for a vote on the issue. They transferred power to Germany, and Wehrmacht troops entered Austria to enforce the Anschluss. The Anschluss was among the first major steps of Adolf Hitler's creation of a Greater German Reich which was to include all ethnic German and all the lands and territories which the German Empire had lost after World War I. With the Anschluss, the German-speaking Republic of Austria ceased to exist as a fully independent state. Timeline after World War I 1918–1933
J. P. Morgan John Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont "Jack" Morgan, Jr., and bequeathing his mansion and large book collections to The Morgan Library & Museum in New York. At the height of Morgan's career during the early 1900s, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance. Childhood and education J. In the spring of 1852, illness that was to become more common as his life progressed struck; rheumatic fever left him in so much pain that he could not walk. Career Early years and life
Duchenne de Boulogne Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806, in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875, in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology. The era of modern neurology developed from Duchenne's understanding of the conductivity of neural pathways, his revelations of the effect of lesions on these structures and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography. Biography Albumen print archived at the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda. Duchenne's colleagues appended "de Boulogne" to his name to avoid confusion with the like-sounding name of Édouard-Adolphe Duchesne (1804–1869) who was a popular society physician in Paris. Woodcut illustration of Duchenne's "appareil volta-électrique." The Mechanism of Human Physiognomy Demonstration of the mechanics of facial expression. Aesthetics and The Narrative Setting G.
Aryanization This article is about the Nazi concept. For a discussion of the spread of Indo-Aryan culture in South Asia, see Indo-Aryanization, Indo-Aryan migration or Out of India theory. Aryanization (German: Arisierung) is a term coined during Nazism referring to the forced expulsion of so-called "non-Aryans", mainly Jews, from business life in Nazi Germany and the territories it controlled. Literally, 'aryanization' means "to make Aryan". The process started by depriving its victims of their wealth and ended with the Holocaust, when it deprived them of their remaining property and their lives. Exclusion of Jews Through the Aryan paragraph and the Nuremberg Laws, Jews were early on largely excluded from public life. Theft of property By January 1, 1938, German Jews were prohibited from operating businesses and trades, and from offering goods and services. In the Autumn of 1938, only 40,000 of the formerly 100,000 Jewish businesses were still in the hands of their original owners.
Woodrow Wilson In his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass a legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled, remaining unmatched up until the New Deal in 1933. This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. Wilson also had Congress pass the Adamson Act, which imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads. Although considered a modern liberal visionary giant as President, Wilson was "deeply racist in his thoughts and politics" and his administration racially segregated federal employees and the Navy. According to Wilson biographer A. Scott Berg, author of Wilson, an 815-page biography; "No matter what time you lived, some of the things Wilson said and did were racist. Early life Wilson c. mid 1870s Personal life Academic career
Photojournalism Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work is both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media. Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she must often make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to significant obstacles (e.g., physical danger, weather, crowds). History Origins in war photography
Hermann Josef Abs Hermann Josef Abs. Hermann Josef Abs (October 15, 1901 – February 5, 1994) was a German banker. He was a member of the board of directors of Deutsche Bank from 1938 to 1945. After World War II (1957–1967) he was chairman of Deutsche Bank, and contributed to the reconstruction of the German economy. Conceptual artist Hans Haacke created a work in 1974 called Manet-PROJEKT '74, which was supposed to be displayed in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum. Manet-PROJEKT '74 was a "ten-panel work about the turbulent and surprising fate of a painting by Édouard Manet, Bunch of Asparagus (1880), as it passed through the hands of its various owners before being bought for the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum by an acquisition committee of the museum's friends. Horst Keller, the director of the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, "objected to listing Hermann J. References Jump up ^ "Abs, Hermann J.". Other sources
Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, enacted December 23, 1913, 12 U.S.C. ch. 3) is an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes, now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar, and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. The Act The Federal Reserve Act created a system of private and public entities; there were to be at least eight, and no more than 12, private regional Federal Reserve banks. With the passing of the Federal Reserve Act, Congress required that all nationally chartered banks become members of the Federal Reserve System. Background Central banking has made various institutional appearances throughout the history of the United States. The First Bank of United States The 2nd Bank of the United States Subsequent Amendments
Florence Owens Thompson Florence Owens Thompson (September 1, 1903 – September 16, 1983), born Florence Leona Christie, was the subject of Dorothea Lange's photo Migrant Mother (1936), an iconic image of the Great Depression. The Library of Congress entitled the image, "Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California. Biography Florence Owens Thompson was born Florence Leona Christie on September 1, 1903, in Indian Territory, Oklahoma. 17 year-old Florence married Cleo Owens (a 23 year-old farmer's son from Stone County, Mississippi) on February 14, 1921. The family settled in Modesto, California in 1945. Iconic photo In March 1936, after picking beets in the Imperial Valley, Thompson and her family were traveling on U.S. While Jim Hill, her husband, and two of Thompson's sons took the radiator, which had also been damaged, to town for repair, Thompson and some of the children set up a temporary camp. Lange's field notes of the images read:
Germany Germany ( i/ˈdʒɜrməni/; German: Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, pronounced [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe. It consists of 16 constituent states, which retain limited sovereignty, and covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi) with a largely temperate seasonal climate. Its capital and largest city is Berlin. §Etymology The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. The German term Deutschland (originally diutisciu land, "the German lands") is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.e. belonging to the diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. §History §Prehistory §Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire §Holy Roman Empire