Franz Schubert 1875 oil painting by Wilhelm August Rieder, after his own 1825 watercolor portrait Franz Peter Schubert (German pronunciation: [ˈfʁant͡s ˈʃuːbɐt]; 31 January 1797 – 19 November 1828) was an Austrian composer. In a short lifespan of less than 32 years, Schubert was a prolific composer, writing some 600 Lieder, ten complete or nearly complete symphonies, liturgical music, operas, incidental music and a large body of chamber and solo piano music. Biography Early life and education Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund (now a part of Alsergrund), Vienna, on 31 January 1797. The house in which Schubert was born, today Nussdorfer Strasse 54, in the ninth district of Vienna. At the age of six, Franz began to receive regular instruction from his father and a year later was enrolled at his father's school. Teacher at his father's school At the end of 1813, he left the Stadtkonvikt and returned home for teacher training at the Normalhauptschule. Supported by friends
Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven) A page from Beethoven's manuscript of the 9th Symphony The Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 (sometimes known simply as "the Choral"), is the final complete symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827). Completed in 1824, the symphony is one of the best-known works of the repertoire of classical music. Among critics, it is almost universally considered to be among Beethoven's greatest works, and is considered by some to be the greatest piece of music ever written. In 2002, Beethoven's autograph score of the Ninth Symphony, held by the Berlin State Library, was added to the United Nations World Heritage List, becoming the first musical score to be so honoured. Portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven in 1820. Beethoven was almost completely deaf when he composed his ninth symphony. The Philharmonic Society of London originally commissioned the symphony in 1817. The main composition work was done between autumn 1822 and the completion of the autograph in February 1824.
List of compositions by Ludwig van Beethoven The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) are listed below. Two overlapping lists of Beethoven's works are presented here. The first is a listing of his best-known works classified by genre. The second is a larger list of works, classified by various numbering systems. Years in parentheses denote dates of composition or publication. The listings that follow include all of these relevant identifiers. List of works by genre Beethoven, caricatured by J. Orchestral music Symphonies Concertos Other works for soloist and orchestra Overtures and incidental music Chamber music Beethoven wrote 16 string quartets and numerous other forms of chamber music, including piano trios, string trios, and sonatas for violin and cello with piano, as well as works with wind instruments. Trios Piano trios Piano quartets String trios Other WoO 37: Trio for flute, bassoon, and piano in G major (1786) String quartets Early Late
Sergei Prokofiev Sergei Prokofiev in New York, 1918 Biography Early childhood and first compositions Formal education and controversial early works As a member of the Saint Petersburg music scene, Prokofiev developed a reputation as a musical rebel, while getting praise for his original compositions, which he performed himself on the piano. In 1909, he graduated from his class in composition with unimpressive marks. He continued at the Conservatory, studying piano under Anna Yesipova and continuing his conducting lessons under Tcherepnin. In 1910, Prokofiev's father died and Sergei's financial support ceased. Fortunately he had started making a name for himself as a composer and pianist outside the Conservatory, making appearances at the St Petersburg Evenings of Contemporary Music. In 1911, help arrived from renowned Russian musicologist and critic Alexander Ossovsky, who wrote a supportive letter to music publisher Boris P. The first ballets Life abroad Notes
E. T. A. Hoffmann Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann (24 January 1776 – 25 June 1822), better known as E.T.A. Hoffmann, was a German Romantic author of fantasy and horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann, in which Hoffman appears (heavily fictionalized) as the hero. He is also the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which the famous ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two other stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler. Hoffmann's stories were very influential during the 19th century, and he is one of the major authors of the Romantic movement. Life Youth Hoffmann's ancestors, both maternal and paternal, were jurists. The household, dominated by the uncle (whom Ernst nicknamed O Weh — "Oh dear!" The provinces Warsaw Berlin and Bamberg Berlin
Symphony No. 3 (Beethoven) The title page of the Eroica Symphony, showing the erased dedication to Napoleon Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55, also known as the Eroica (Italian for "heroic"), is a musical work marking the full arrival of the composer's "middle-period," a series of unprecedented large scale works of emotional depth and structural rigor. Allegro con brio (lasts 12–18 minutes)Marcia funebre: Adagio assai in C minor (14–18 minutes)Scherzo: Allegro vivace (5–6 minutes)Finale: Allegro molto (10–14 minutes) The performance time is approximately 50 minutes. Although the first movement's typical performance is around 12–18 minutes, only one recording of the first movement lasted 20 minutes. The third movement is a lively scherzo. The theme of the fourth movement with its bass line. Beethoven in 1804, when he was composing the Eroica Symphony Beethoven had originally conceived of dedicating the symphony to Napoleon Bonaparte. According to Harold C. Music critic J.
Frédéric Chopin Photograph of Chopin by Bisson, c. 1849 Frédéric François Chopin (/ˈʃoʊpæn/; French pronunciation: [fʁe.de.ʁik ʃɔ.pɛ̃]; 22 February or 1 March 1810 – 17 October 1849), born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin,[n 1] was a Romantic-era Polish composer. A child prodigy, Chopin was born in what was then the Duchy of Warsaw. Both in his native Poland and beyond, Chopin's music, his status as one of music's earliest 'superstars', his association (if only indirect) with political insurrection, his amours and his early death have made him, in the public consciousness, a leading symbol of the Romantic era. Life Childhood Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola, 46 kilometres (29 miles) west of Warsaw, in what was then the Duchy of Warsaw, a Polish state established by Napoleon. In October 1810, six months after Chopin's birth, the family moved to Warsaw, where his father acquired a post teaching French at the Warsaw Lyceum, then housed in the Saxon Palace. Chopin's Polish residences Education
Romantic music Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It was related to Romanticism, the European artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, and Romantic music in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany. Background Romanticism Traits Characteristics often attributed to Romanticism, including musical Romanticism, are (Kravitt 1992, 93–94, 107): Such lists, however, proliferated over time, resulting in a "chaos of antithetical phenomena", criticized for their superficiality and for signifying so many different things that there came to be no central meaning. Trends of the 19th century Non-musical influences Events and changes that happen in society such as ideas, attitudes, discoveries, inventions, and historical events always affect music. Another development that had an effect on music was the rise of the middle class. Nationalism
Symphony No. 6 (Beethoven) Part of a sketch by Beethoven for his Symphony No. 6 The Symphony No. 6 in F major, Op. 68, also known as the Pastoral Symphony (German Pastoral-Sinfonie), is a symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven, and completed in 1808. One of Beethoven's few works containing explicitly programmatic content, the symphony was first performed in the Theater an der Wien on 22 December 1808 in a four hour concert. The work has become one of the central works of the symphonic repertoire. Portrait of Beethoven in 1804, when he had been working on the Sixth Symphony for two years. Beethoven was a lover of nature who spent a great deal of his time on walks in the country. The composer said that the Sixth Symphony is "more the expression of feeling than painting", a point underlined by the title of the first movement. The symphony has five movements, rather than the four typical of symphonies of the Classical era. Beethoven wrote a short descriptive note at the head of each movement. 'Thunder.
Igor Stravinsky Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinsky or Stravinskii; Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, transliterated: Igorʹ Fëdorovič Stravinskij; Russian pronunciation: [ˌiɡərʲ ˌfʲjodɐrɐvʲɪt͡ɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj]; 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. Life and career Early life in the Russian Empire Igor Stravinsky, 1903 In 1905 he was betrothed to his cousin Yekaterina Gavrilovna Nosenko (called "Katya"), whom he had known since early childhood. In spite of the Orthodox Church's opposition to marriage between first cousins, the couple married on 23 January 1906: their first two children, Fyodor (Theodore) and Ludmila, were born in 1907 and 1908, respectively. Life in Switzerland Vaslav Nijinsky as Petrushka in 1910–11 Life in France Vera de Bosset Sudeikin
Lied Lied (German pronunciation: [liːt]; plural Lieder [ˈliːdɐ]) is a German and Dutch word literally meaning "song". It usually describes the setting of romantic German poems to music, especially during the nineteenth century, beginning with Carl Loewe, Heinrich Marschner, and Franz Schubert. Among English speakers, "Lied" is often used interchangeably with "art song" to encompass works that the tradition has inspired in other languages. The poetry forming the basis for Lieder often centers upon pastoral themes, or themes of romantic love. History For German speakers, the term "Lied" has a long history ranging from 12th century troubadour songs (Minnesang) via folk songs (Volkslieder) and church hymns (Kirchenlieder) to 20th-century workers songs (Arbeiterlieder) or protest songs (Kabarettlieder, Protestlieder). Other national traditions The Lied tradition is closely linked with the Germanic languages. Bibliography Hallmark, Rufus (1996). External links