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Ancient history[edit] Classical antiquity[edit] Platonic virtue[edit] The four classic Cardinal virtues are:[4] This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed by Plato in addition to piety: ὁσιότης (hosiotēs), with the exception that wisdom replaced prudence as virtue.[5] Some scholars[6] consider either of the above four virtue combinations as mutually reducible and therefore not cardinal. Aristotelian virtue[edit] Prudence and virtue[edit] Seneca, the Roman Stoic, said that perfect prudence is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. Religious traditions[edit] Judaism[edit] Loving God, and obeying his laws, in particular the Ten Commandments are central to Jewish conceptions of virtue. A classic articulation of the Golden Rule came from the first century Rabbi Hillel the Elder. Christianity[edit] Islam[edit] In Islam, the Qur'an is believed to be the literal word of God, and the definitive description of virtue. Hinduism[edit] Buddhism[edit] Bahá'í faith[edit] Daoism[edit] Related:  Wikipedia ADictionary A

Nobility There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class. Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility also existed in such republics as the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), the Republic of Genoa (1005–1815) and the Republic of Venice (697–1797), and remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g., San Marino and the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, and a hereditary title need not indicate nobility (e.g., baronet). History[edit] Nobility offered protection in exchange for service In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece, Mexico, and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens. French aristocrats, c. 1774 Noble privileges[edit] Ennoblement[edit]

Fred Astaire Fred Astaire (born Frederick Austerlitz;[1] May 10, 1899 – June 22, 1987) was an American dancer, singer, actor, choreographer and television presenter. He is widely regarded as the most influential dancer in the history of film and television musicals.[2] His stage and subsequent film and television careers spanned a total of 76 years, during which he starred in more than 10 Broadway and London musicals, made 31 musical films, 4 television specials, and issued numerous recordings. As a dancer, he is best remembered for his sense of rhythm, his perfectionism, and as the dancing partner and on-screen romantic interest of Ginger Rogers, with whom he co-starred in a series of ten Hollywood musicals. Astaire was named by the American Film Institute as the fifth greatest male star of Classic Hollywood cinema in 100 Years... 100 Stars.[3][4] Gene Kelly, another renowned star of filmed dance, said that "the history of dance on film begins with Astaire." Life and career[edit] Personal life[edit]

List of English words of Yiddish origin This is a list of words that have entered the English language from the Yiddish language, many of them by way of American English. There are differing approaches to the romanisation of Yiddish orthography (which uses the Hebrew alphabet) and the spelling of some of these words may therefore be variable (for example, schlep is also seen as shlep, schnoz as shnozz). Many of these words are more common in the US entertainment industry, via vaudeville, the Catskills/Borscht Belt, and Hollywood. Others are more regionally oriented, e.g., in the New York City metropolitan area. A number of Yiddish words also entered English via large Jewish communities in Britain, particularly London, where Yiddish has influenced the Cockney dialect. A number of Yiddish words are related to Hebrew, Germanic or Slavic forms, and some words of those origins have entered English via Yiddish. Background[edit] Many of these words have slightly different meanings and usages in English, from their Yiddish originals.

Character Strengths and Virtues (book) The strengths and virtues[edit] CSV defined character strengths as satisfying most of the ten following criteria. Character strengths are The introduction of CSV suggests that these six virtues are considered good by the vast majority of cultures and throughout history and that these traits lead to increased happiness when practiced. The authors draw from the writings of various thinkers. Practical applications of positive psychology include helping individuals and organizations correctly identify their strengths and use them to increase and sustain their respective levels of well-being. Finally, other researchers have advocated grouping the 24 identified character traits into just four classes of strength (Intellectual, Social, Temperance, Transcendent) or even just three classes (without Transcendence). List from the book[edit] The organization of these virtues and strengths in the book is as follows.[1] Relation to virtue ethics[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Call for Entry: Vilém Flusser Residency Programme for Artistic Research Submission Deadline: 1 December 2013 Submit to the Call for Entry here. We ‘know’ that there is nothing wonderful about the world, or about ourselves, (...) and still we produce wonder after wonder. Perhaps (...) what science is really about is not to explain wonders, but to create them. /Vilém Flusser/ We are calling upon artistic research to actively explore the capabilities and limitations of transdisciplinary and transmedial situations in contemporary culture and thus to understand artistic research as exploring the links between aesthetics, materiality, and politics. The Vilém Flusser Residency Programme for Artistic Research supports projects and activities which are simultaneously conceptual and practice-based. For Vilém Flusser, theory and praxis are intrinsically tied to each other. This is not a production grant. Note The period of residency is three months: from 1 May till 31 July 2014. Submission Deadline: 1 December 2013 | Conditions of Entry © Pinar Yoldas

Emptiness The emptiness of a subway station, which is filled with a crush of humanity during rush hours, can symbolize the sense of void and isolation that a person may feel if he or she is facing depression. While Christianity and Western sociologists and psychologists view a state of emptiness as a negative, unwanted condition, in some Eastern philosophies such as Buddhist philosophy and Taoism, emptiness (Śūnyatā) is a realized achievement. Outside of Eastern philosophy, some writers have also suggested that people may use a transitory state of emptiness as a means of liberating themselves for personal growth.[citation needed] In Western culture[edit] Sociology, philosophy, and psychology[edit] In the West, feeling "empty" is often viewed as a negative condition. In political philosophy, emptiness is associated with nihilism. In cultures where a sense of emptiness is seen as a negative psychological condition, it is often associated with depression. Christianity[edit] In Eastern cultures[edit]

California California ( i/ˌkælɨˈfɔrnjə/) is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is the most populous U.S. state,[11] home to one out of eight Americans (38 million people), and is the third largest state by area (after Alaska and Texas). California is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east, Arizona to the southeast, and the Mexican State of Baja California to the south. It is home to the nation's second and fifth most populous census statistical areas (Greater Los Angeles area and San Francisco Bay Area, respectively), and eight of the nation's 50 most populated cities (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach, and Oakland).[12] Sacramento is the state capital. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. Etymology Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal., Cali., Calif. and us-CA. Climate

Australian English History[edit] The earliest form of Australian English was spoken by the children of the colonists in early New South Wales. This first generation of native-born children created a new dialect that was to become the language of the nation. The Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England.[6] The native-born children in the colony created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them, and with it expressed peer solidarity. A quarter of the convicts were Irish. Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example dingo) and local culture. Also of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English (and ultimately from the Sydney Aboriginal language), meaning "dead", with some extension to "broken" or "useless". Phonology and pronunciation[edit] Vowels[edit] Notes[edit]

Hagakure Cover of The Book of the Samurai Hagakure (Kyūjitai: 葉隱; Shinjitai: 葉隠; meaning Hidden by the Leaves or hidden leaves),[1] or Hagakure Kikigaki (葉隠聞書?) is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the samurai Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what is now Saga prefecture in Japan. Tsuramoto Tashiro compiled these commentaries from his conversations with Tsunetomo from 1709 to 1716; however, it was not published until many years afterwards. Hagakure is also known as The Book of the Samurai, Analects of Nabeshima or Hagakure Analects. Content[edit] The book records Tsunetomo's views on bushido, the warrior code of the samurai. Historical context[edit] After his master died, Tsunetomo himself was forbidden to perform junshi, a retainer's ritual suicide, by an edict of the Tokugawa Shogunate combined with his master's disapproval of the tradition. Editions[edit] Popular culture[edit] References[edit]