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Human Development Index

Human Development Index
World map indicating the category of Human Development Index by country (based on 2013 data; published July 24, 2014). The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)" and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".[3] Origins[edit] Dimensions and calculation[edit] New method (2010 Report onwards)[6][edit] Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), starting with the 2010 Human Development Report the HDI combines three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birthEducation index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schoolingA decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$) In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. 1.

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Adwaita A zookeeper tends to Adwaita (2005) Adwaita (meaning "the only one" in Bengali)[1] was a male Aldabra giant tortoise that lived in the Alipore Zoological Gardens of Kolkata, India. At the time of his death in 2006, Adwaita was believed to be amongst the longest-living animals in the world. History[edit] Adwaita was reportedly given to Robert Clive (1725–1774) of the East India Company by British seafarers who captured it from Aldabra, an atoll in the Seychelles. This anecdotal report has not been confirmed.[2] The animal was one of four tortoises that resided at Clive's estate at Barrackpore, in the northern suburbs of Kolkata.[1] Adwaita was transferred to the Alipore Zoo in 1875 or 1876 by Carl Louis Schwendler, the founder of the zoo.[3] Adwaita lived in his enclosure in the zoo until his death on 22 March 2006.

Tax incidence U.S. federal effective tax rates by income percentile and component as projected for 2014 by the Tax Policy Center.[1][2] In economics, tax incidence is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare. Tax incidence is said to "fall" upon the group that ultimately bears the burden of, or ultimately has to pay, the tax. The key concept is that the tax incidence or tax burden does not depend on where the revenue is collected, but on the price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply. The concept was brought to attention by the French Physiocrats and in particular François Quesnay who argued that the incidence of all taxation falls ultimately on landowners and is at the expense of land rent. For this reason they advocated the replacement of the multiplicity of contemporary taxes by the Impôt Unique, which is similar to what would later be known by Georgists as a 'Single-Tax' on land value.

Human Security Backgrounder What is 'human security'? Human security is the combination of threats associated with war, genocide, and the displacement of populations. At a minimum, human security means freedom from violence and from the fear of violence. How does human security differ from national security? Unlike traditional concepts of security, which focus on defending borders from external military threats, human security is concerned with the security of individuals. Happy life expectancy Happy life expectancy is calculated by multiplying life expectancy by a happiness index. The first uses life expectancy at birth. The happiness index is the average appreciation of life (with a value from 0 to 1) from the World databases of happiness.[1] Quality of life Indexes[edit] Nazi Gold: The Merkers Mine Treasure Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records AdministrationPrologue Page Spring 1999, vol. 31, no. 1 By Greg Bradsher Late on the evening of March 22, 1945, elements of Lt. Gen.

List of Germanic deities In Germanic paganism, the indigenous religion of the ancient Germanic peoples that inhabited Germanic Europe, there were a number of different gods and goddesses. Germanic deities are attested from numerous sources, including works of literature, various chronicles, runic inscriptions, personal names, place names, and other sources. This article presents a comprehensive list of these deities. Overview-Human Security Report 2009/2010 On 2 December 2010, the Human Security Report Project (HSRP) released the Human Security Report 2009/2010: The Causes of Peace and The Shrinking Costs of War. Part I of the new Report examines the forces and political developments that have driven down the number of international conflicts and war deaths since the 1950s, and the number of civil wars since the early 1990s. It argues that the fact that these forces persist, or have strengthened, provides grounds for cautious optimism about the future of global security. Part II examines the paradox of mortality rates that decline during the overwhelming majority of today’s wars, as well as the challenges and controversies involved in measuring indirect war deaths—those caused by war-exacerbated disease and malnutrition.

Happy Planet Index Map showing countries shaded by their position in the Happy Planet Index (2006). The highest-ranked countries are bright green; the lowest are brown. The index is designed to challenge well-established indices of countries’ development, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI), which are seen as not taking sustainability into account. The Bahá'ís: Who is Bahá’u’lláh? Bahá’u’lláh is recognized by millions throughout the world as the Messenger of God for this age. The Bahá’í Faith is founded on His teachings. Born in 1817 to a prominent family in Iran, He showed from childhood an unusual intellectual precocity, although unschooled in the kind of learning prevalent in 19th century Iran; He demonstrated, too, a particular devotion to relief of the condition of the poor. His given name was Mírza Husayn ‘Alí, but He identified Himself as Bahá’u’lláh, which means “Glory of God,” a title by which He was addressed by His Forerunner, the Báb. Because of His teachings, He was banished into an exile, eventually lasting forty years, that took Him to the Holy Land. It was there that He passed away in 1892.

Emma Goldman Emma Goldman (June 27 [O.S. June 15], 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. In 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to "induce persons not to register" for the newly instated draft. After their release from prison, they were arrested—along with hundreds of others—and deported to Russia. Victory at The Block: government gives $5m to homes for Aboriginal families Protesters at The Block in inner Sydney say their battle cry has been heard with the federal government committing $5m to building homes for Aboriginal families at the site. Redfern Aboriginal tent embassy, led by Wiradjuri elder Jenny Munro, gathered outside the supreme court in Sydney on Thursday to celebrate the news. “That was always our battle cry from day one that affordable housing be built first for our people. I think we can rightfully today claim that victory,” Munro said.

Human Security Report Project: About Us The Human Security Report Project (HSRP) is an independent research centre affiliated with Simon Fraser University (SFU) in Vancouver, Canada. Formerly located at the University of British Columbia and known as the Human Security Centre, the HSRP joined SFU in May of 2007. The HSRP tracks global and regional trends in organized violence, their causes and consequences. Happiness Happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.[1] A variety of biological, psychological, religious, and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources. Various research groups, including positive psychology, are employing the scientific method to research questions about what "happiness" is, and how it might be attained. The United Nations declared 20 March the International Day of Happiness to recognise the relevance of happiness and wellbeing as universal goals. Definition

Achtiname of Muhammad The Ashtiname of Muhammad, also known as the Covenant or (Holy) Testament (Testamentum) of the Prophet Muhammad, is a document or ahdname which is a charter or writ allegedly ratified by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad granting protection and other privileges to the Christian monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery. It is sealed with an imprint representing Muhammad's hand.[1] Ashtiname (pronounced Āshtīnāmeh) is a Persian word consisting of two parts: آشتی (Āshtī) meaning Peace and نامه (nāmeh, nama) meaning Book or Letter and آشتی‌نامه ('the Book of Peace') is the Persian word for Treaty and Covenant.[2] Document[edit] English Translation of the Ashtiname by Richard Peacocke[edit]