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Ontology

Ontology
Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality Overview[edit] Some fundamental questions[edit] Principal questions of ontology include: "What can be said to exist?""What is a thing?" what it is (its 'whatness', quiddity, haecceity or essence)how it is (its 'howness' or qualitativeness)how much it is (quantitativeness)where it is, its relatedness to other beings[4] Further examples of ontological questions include:[citation needed] Concepts[edit] Essential ontological dichotomies include: Types[edit] Philosophers can classify ontologies in various ways using criteria such as the degree of abstraction and field of application:[5] History[edit] Etymology[edit] The first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the OED (Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, 2008) came in a work by Gideon Harvey (1636/7–1702): Archelogia philosophica nova; or, New principles of Philosophy. Origins[edit] Parmenides and monism[edit] Plato[edit]

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Epistemology Epistemology ( i/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge", and λόγος, logos, meaning "logical discourse") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.[1] Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification,[2][3] (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.

Philosophical realism Realists tend to believe that whatever we believe now is only an approximation of reality and that every new observation brings us closer to understanding reality.[2] In its Kantian sense, realism is contrasted with idealism. In a contemporary sense, realism is contrasted with anti-realism, primarily in the philosophy of science. History[edit] Platonic realism[edit] The Scottish School of Common Sense Realism[edit] Elisionism Elisionism is a philosophical standpoint encompassing various social theories. Elisionist theories are diverse; however, they are unified in their adherence to process philosophy as well as their assumption that the social and the individual cannot be separated.[1] The term elisionism was coined by Margaret Archer in 1995 in the book Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach.[2] Elisionism is often contrasted with holism, atomism, and emergentism.[3]

Samadhanga Sutta: The Factors of Concentration I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. There he addressed the monks, "Monks, I will teach you the five-factored noble right concentration. Listen, and pay close attention. I will speak." "As you say, lord," the monks replied. The Blessed One said: "Now what, monks, is five-factored noble right concentration?

Ikigai Ikigai (生き甲斐, pronounced [ikiɡai]) is a Japanese concept meaning "a reason for being". Everyone, according to the Japanese, has an ikigai. Finding it requires a deep and often lengthy search of self. Such a search is regarded as being very important, since it is believed that discovery of one's ikigai brings satisfaction and meaning to life. In the culture of Okinawa, ikigai is thought of as "a reason to get up in the morning"; that is, a reason to enjoy life. In a TED Talk, Dan Buettner referenced ikigai as one of the reasons people in the area had such long lives.

Axiology History[edit] Between the 5th and 6th century B.C., it was important in Greece to be knowledgeable if you were to be successful. Philosophers began to recognize that differences existed between the laws and morality of society. Meta-ontology Meta-ontology is a term of recent origin first used by Peter van Inwagen in analyzing Willard Van Orman Quine's critique of Rudolf Carnap's metaphysics,[1] where Quine introduced a formal technique for determining the ontological commitments in a comparison of ontologies.[2] Thomas Hofweber, while acknowledging that the use of the term is controversial, suggests that, although strictly construed meta-ontology is a separate metatheory of ontology, the field of ontology can be more broadly construed as containing its metatheory.[3][4] Advocates of the term 'meta-ontology' seek to distinguish 'ontology' (which investigates what there is) from 'meta'-ontology (which investigates what we are asking when we ask what there is).[1][5][6] Amie L. See also[edit]

Dialectical monism Dialectical Monism Principles[edit] Ideas relating to "teleological evolution" are important in some progressive interpretations of dialectical monism. However, this element has not always been present historically, and is generally not present in contemporary dialectical monisms such as Taoism. It is important to note that teleological tendencies in dialectical monism can significantly differ from other variants of teleology if dialectical progression is linked to materialism, because such an interpretation is a naturalistic progression rather than a result of design or consciousness. However, non-materialistic philosophies exist that also are dialectical monisms, such as Actual Idealism.

Episode 11: Nietzsche’s Immoralism: What Is Ethics, Anyway? Podcast: Play in new window | Download (Duration: 1:51:38 — 102.2MB) Discussing The Genealogy of Morals (mostly the first two essays) and Beyond Good and Evil Ch. 1 (The Prejudices of Philosophers), 5 (Natural History of Morals), and 9 (What is Noble?). We go through Nietzsche’s convoluted and historically improbable stories about about the transition from master to slave morality and the origin of bad conscience. Why does he diss Christianity?

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