Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality Overview Some fundamental questions Principal questions of ontology include: "What can be said to exist?""What is a thing?" what it is (its 'whatness', quiddity, haecceity or essence)how it is (its 'howness' or qualitativeness)how much it is (quantitativeness)where it is, its relatedness to other beings Further examples of ontological questions include: Concepts Essential ontological dichotomies include: Types Philosophers can classify ontologies in various ways using criteria such as the degree of abstraction and field of application: History Etymology The first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the OED (Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, 2008) came in a work by Gideon Harvey (1636/7–1702): Archelogia philosophica nova; or, New principles of Philosophy. Origins Parmenides and monism Plato
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