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Social philosophy

Social philosophy
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers. Political philosophy is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics that does not necessarily belong to the technical discipline of philosophy. History[edit] Ancient Philosophies[edit] Ancient China[edit] Saint Augustine

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_philosophy

Related:  PhilosophyPeople and conceptsPolitics

Mithraism and Christianity by Acharya S/D.M. Murdock (The following article is adapted from a chapter in Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled, as well as excerpts from other articles, such as "The Origins of Christianity" and "The ZEITGEIST Sourcebook.") "Both Mithras and Christ were described variously as 'the Way,' 'the Truth,' 'the Light,' 'the Life,' 'the Word,' 'the Son of God,' 'the Good Shepherd.'

Introduction to Political Philosophy About the Course This course is intended as an introduction to political philosophy as seen through an examination of some of the major texts and thinkers of the Western political tradition. Three broad themes that are central to understanding political life are focused upon: the polis experience (Plato, Aristotle), the sovereign state (Machiavelli, Hobbes), constitutional government (Locke), and democracy (Rousseau, Tocqueville).

The Paradox of Diverse Communities - Richard Florida Urbanists and planners like to imagine and design for a world of diversity. Diversity, we like to think, is both a social good and, as I’ve argued, a spur to innovation and economic growth. But to what degree is this goal of diverse, cohesive community attainable, even in theory? That’s the key question behind an intriguing new study, “The (In)compatibility of Diversity and Sense of Community,” published in the November edition of the American Journal of Community Psychology. The study, by sociologist Zachary Neal and psychologist Jennifer Watling Neal, both of Michigan State University (full disclosure: I was an external member of the former’s dissertation committee), develops a nifty agent-based computer model to test this question. Their simulations of more than 20 million virtual “neighborhoods” demonstrate a troubling paradox: that community and diversity may be fundamentally incompatible goals.

What is Alchemy What are the origins of Alchemy? Alchemy is an ancient spiritual science, and one of three disciplines that comprise the Hermetic tradition. Whether conducted in a physical laboratory or one’s own psyche, this so-called “royal art” is concerned with transmuting the “gross” into the “perfect” through a series of processes collectively referred to as the “Magnum Opus” or “Great Work”. Completion of the Great Work purportedly yields the “philosopher’s stone” or the “elixir”, a legendary substance variously claimed to transmute base metals into gold, rejuvenate the body and confer immortality.

Aesthetics "Aesthetician" redirects here. For a cosmetologist who specializes in the study of skin care, see Esthetician. More specific aesthetic theory, often with practical implications, relating to a particular branch of the arts is divided into areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. An example from art theory is aesthetic theory as a set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement: such as the Cubist aesthetic.[6]

Philosophy At the core of Aryanism is a precise foundational ideology from which its religious, political and cultural aspects all follow. Aryanists are expected to be able to articulately represent the arguments of this ideology and compare it to any other given ideology, including in debate against hostile critics. To hone skills towards this end, Aryanists are encouraged to debate each other and to proactively seek out opposing presentations (historical as well as contemporary) and offer Aryan rebuttals. Through developing familiarity with each other’s work, Aryanists are expected to establish specialist expertize in different areas of the subject matter and be able to mutually defer ongoing discourse with trust and respect.

Anarchism and Taoism Anarchism is usually considered a recent, Western phenomenon, but its roots reach deep in the ancient civilizations of the East. The first clear expression of an anarchist sensibility may be traced back to the Taoists in ancient China from about the sixth century BC. Indeed, the principal Taoist work, the Tao te ching, may be considered one of the greatest anarchist classics. The Taoists at the time were living in a feudal society in which law was becoming codified and government increasingly centralized and bureaucratic. Confucius was the chief spokesman of the legalistic school supporting these developments, and called for a social hierarchy in which every citizen knew his place. The Taoists for their part rejected government and believed that all could live in natural and spontaneous harmony.

Noam Chomsky Breaks Down the Zombie Apocalypse Last week Noam Chomsky participated in a question and answer session via Skype with a group of students. When one of them asked his views on America's obsession with zombies, the legendary linguist/philosopher suggested it might be a sign that a nation with a history of brutal oppression suffers subconscious fears of retribution. A sort of jerky-gaited, brain-eating, undead Karma. "This might sound kind of random, but I would really like to ask your opinion on why you think there's this preoccupation with the apocalypse and with zombies right now in our culture." Chomsky responded that he felt the focus on zombies was "a reflection of fear and desperation" by "an unusually frightened country." He went through the history of fear in popular culture as outlined in the book War Stars by Bruce Franklin.

Shoshin For the Ryukyuan king, see Shō Shin. Shoshin (初心) is a concept in Zen Buddhism meaning "beginner's mind". It refers to having an attitude of openness, eagerness, and lack of preconceptions when studying a subject, even when studying at an advanced level, just as a beginner in that subject would. The term is especially used in the study of Zen Buddhism and Japanese martial arts. The phrase is also used in the title of the book Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind by the Zen teacher Shunryu Suzuki, who says the following about the correct approach to Zen practice: "In the beginner's mind there are many possibilities, in the expert's mind there are few."

Related:  Political Philosophy