Head-driven phrase structure grammar An HPSG grammar includes principles and grammar rules and lexicon entries which are normally not considered to belong to a grammar. The formalism is based on lexicalism. This means that the lexicon is more than just a list of entries; it is in itself richly structured. The basic type HPSG deals with is the sign. Sample grammar HPSG generates strings by combining signs, which are defined by their location within a type hierarchy and by their internal feature structure, represented by attribute value matrices (AVMs).  Features take types or lists of types as their values, and these values may in turn have their own feature structure. In the simplified AVM for the word "walks" below, the verb's categorical information is divided into features that describe it (HEAD) and features that describe its arguments (VALENCE). "Walks" is a sign of type word with a head of type verb. Signs of type phrase unify with one or more children and propagate information upward. See also
Pathos Pathos (/ˈpeɪθɵs/; plural: pathea; Greek: πάθος, for "suffering" or "experience;" adjectival form: 'pathetic' from παθητικός) represents an appeal to the audience's emotions. Pathos is a communication technique used most often in rhetoric (where it is considered one of the three modes of persuasion, alongside ethos and logos), and in literature, film and other narrative art. Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of ways: Relation to Logos The mode of pathos is, more often than not, construed as fundamentally emotive, by extension leaving logos unemotive. Another interpretation is that logos invokes emotions relevant to the issue at hand, whereas pathos invokes emotions that have no bearing on the issue, in that the pathē they stimulate lack, or at any rate are not shown to possess, any intrinsic connection with the point at issue. Aristotle’s text on Pathos Alternative views on Pathos See also References External links
examples-of-ethos-logos-and-pathos Aristotle's "modes for persuasion" - otherwise known as rhetorical appeals - are known by the names of ethos, pathos, and logos. They are means of persuading others to believe a particular point of view. They are often used in speech writing and advertising to sway the audience. Meaning of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos Aristotle used these three terms to explain how rhetoric works: "Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. Ethos (sometimes called an appeal to ethics), then, is used as a means of convincing an audience via the authority or credibility of the persuader, be it a notable or experienced figure in the field or even a popular celebrity. Pathos (appeal to emotion) is a way of convincing an audience of an argument by creating an emotional response to an impassioned plea or a convincing story. Logos (appeal to logic) is a way of persuading an audience with reason, using facts and figures. View & Download PDF Using Ethos, Logos, and Pathos Ethos Logos Ethos
Eros In Greek mythology, Eros (, ; Ancient Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire") is the Greek god of love and sex. His Roman counterpart was Cupid ("desire"). Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares and, with some of his siblings, was one of the Erotes, a group of winged love gods. In some traditions, he is described as one of the primordial gods. Etymology The Greek ἔρως, meaning "desire," comes from ἔραμαι "to desire, love", of uncertain etymology. R. Cult and depiction Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises. A cult of Eros existed in pre-classical Greece, but it was much less important than that of Aphrodite. Primordial god Homer does not mention Eros. At the beginning there was only Chaos, Night (Nyx), Darkness (Erebus), and the Abyss (Tartarus). Son of Aphrodite and Ares [Hera addresses Athena:] “We must have a word with Aphrodite. Eros and Psyche Eros in art See also Notes ^ A. References
Correspondence Theory of Truth - Dictionary definition of Correspondence Theory of Truth The term "correspondence theory of truth" has circulated among modern philosophical writers largely through the influence of Bertrand Russell, who sets the view (which he himself adopts) that "truth consists in some form of correspondence between belief and fact" against the theory of the absolute idealists that "truth consists in coherence," that is, that the more our beliefs hang together in a system, the truer they are. Ancient and Scholastic Versions of the Theory The origins of the word correspondence, used to denote the relation between thought and reality in which the truth of thought consists, appear to be medieval. Thomas Aquinas used correspondentia in this way at least once, but much more often he used other expressions and preferred most of all the definition of truth that he attributed to the ninth-century Jewish Neoplatonist Isaac Israeli: Veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus (truth is the adequation of things and the intellect). plato aristotle megarian "liar" paradox
Ethos Ethos (/ˈiːθɒs/ or /ˈiːθoʊs/) is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence its hearer's emotions, behaviours, and even morals. Early Greek stories of Orpheus exhibit this idea in a compelling way. The word's use in rhetoric is closely based on the Greek terminology used by Aristotle in his concept of the three artistic proofs. Etymology and origin Ethos (ἦθος, ἔθος, plurals: ethe (ἤθη), ethea (ἤθεα)) is a Greek word originally meaning "accustomed place" (as in ἤθεα ἵππων "the habitat of horses", Iliad 6.511), "custom, habit", equivalent to Latin mores. Ethos forms the root of ethikos (ἠθικός), meaning "moral, showing moral character". Current usage Ethos can simply mean the disposition, character, or fundamental values particular to a specific person, people, corporation, culture, or movement.
Heinrich Himmler High Nazi Germany official, head of the SS Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluːɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] ( listen); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany. Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and a main architect of the Holocaust. As a member of a reserve battalion during World War I, Himmler did not see active service. He studied agronomy in university, and joined the Nazi Party in 1923 and the SS in 1925. On Hitler's behalf, Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen and built extermination camps. Early life Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was born in Munich on 7 October 1900 into a conservative middle-class Roman Catholic family. Himmler's first name, Heinrich, was that of his godfather, Prince Heinrich of Bavaria, a member of the royal family of Bavaria, who had been tutored by Gebhard Himmler. Nazi activist Rise in the SS Consolidation of power Anti-church struggle
Anima and animus Jungian theory In Jung's theory, the anima makes up the totality of the unconscious feminine psychological qualities that a man possesses and the animus the masculine ones possessed by a woman. He did not believe they were an aggregate of father or mother, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, or teachers, though these aspects of the personal unconscious can influence a person's anima or animus. Origin Anima and Animus A natural understanding of another member of the opposite sex is instilled in individuals that stems from constant subjection to members of the opposite sex. Anima Anima originated from Latin, and was originally used to describe ideas such as breath, soul, spirit or vital force. Animus Animus originated from Latin, where it was used to describe ideas such as the rational soul, life, mind, mental powers, courage or desire. In the early nineteenth century, animus was used to mean "temper" and was typically used in a hostile sense. Eve Helen Mary
History of linguistics Linguistics, as a study, endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language. Linguistic study was originally motivated by the correct description of classical liturgical language, notably that of Sanskrit grammar, or by the development of logic and rhetoric in ancient Greece, leading to a grammatical tradition in Hellenism. Beginning around the 4th century BCE, China also developed its own grammatical traditions. Traditions of Arabic grammar and Hebrew grammar developed during the Middle Ages, also in a religious context. Modern linguistics began to develop in the 18th century, reaching the "golden age of philology" in the 19th century, with work almost entirely centering around Indo-European studies and leading to a highly elaborate and consistent reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European language. In the early 20th century, de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. Antiquity Babylonia
Wikipedia Not Great Nothing is perfect, and Wikipedia is no exception. This page enumerates user opinions on why Wikipedia is not so great. For formal criticisms, see Criticism of Wikipedia. Much of the presented criticism is debated in separate articles: Wikipedia is succeeding, Wikipedia is failing, Why Wikipedia is so great, and Replies to common objections. The opinions below are grouped into related sets. Technical/usability issues One centralized Wikipedia server lacks robustness against server or network problems. Collaboration practices and internal social issues Bureaucracy Despite claims to the opposite, Wikipedia is a bureaucracy, full of rules described as "policies" and "guidelines" with a hierarchy aimed at enforcing these (sometimes contradictorily) and with many individuals promoting instruction creep. Behavioral/cultural problems People raise endless objections on Talk pages, instead of fixing what bothers them. Personal interests of contributors and others
Adolf Eichmann German Nazi official, a major organiser of the Holocaust Otto Adolf Eichmann[a] ( YKHE-mən, German: [ˈʔɔto ˈʔaːdɔlf ˈʔaɪçman]; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German-Austrian SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, referred to as the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in Nazi terminology. He was tasked by SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the logistics involved in the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe during World War II. Eichmann was captured by the Mossad in Argentina on 11 May 1960 and subsequently found guilty of war crimes in a widely publicised trial in Jerusalem, where he was executed by hanging in 1962. After an unremarkable school career, Eichmann briefly worked for his father's mining company in Austria, where the family had moved in 1914. Early life and education Early career Second World War Wannsee Conference
Id, ego and super-ego Although the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are purely symbolic concepts about the mind and do not correspond to actual somatic structures of the brain (such as the kind dealt with by neuroscience). The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud's thought: the "structural model" (which succeeded his "economic model" and "topographical model") was first discussed in his 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle and was formalized and elaborated upon three years later in his The Ego and the Id. Freud's proposal was influenced by the ambiguity of the term "unconscious" and its many conflicting uses. Id According to Freud the id is unconscious by definition: In the id, "contrary impulses exist side by side, without cancelling each other out. ... Developmentally, the id precedes the ego; i.e., the psychic apparatus begins, at birth, as an undifferentiated id, part of which then develops into a structured ego.