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Descartes, Rene [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

René Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy.” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge. Descartes attempted to address the former issue via his method of doubt. Once this conclusion is reached, Descartes can proceed to rebuild his system of previously dubious beliefs on this absolutely certain foundation. The presentation below provides an overview of Descartes’ philosophical thought as it relates to these various metaphysical, epistemological, religious, moral and scientific issues, covering the wide range of his published works and correspondence. Table of Contents 1. 2. a. b. 3. Related:  History of Philosophy, Definitions, Conceptsstarriemeg

George Berkeley 1. Life and philosophical works Berkeley was born in 1685 near Kilkenny, Ireland. After several years of schooling at Kilkenny College, he entered Trinity College, in Dublin, at age 15. He was made a fellow of Trinity College in 1707 (three years after graduating) and was ordained in the Anglican Church shortly thereafter. At Trinity, where the curriculum was notably modern, Berkeley encountered the new science and philosophy of the late seventeenth century, which was characterized by hostility towards Aristotelianism. Berkeley's first important published work, An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709), was an influential contribution to the psychology of vision and also developed doctrines relevant to his idealist project. Shortly after returning to London, Berkeley composed the Theory of Vision, Vindicated and Explained, a defense of his earlier work on vision, and the Analyst, an acute and influential critique of the foundations of Newton's calculus. 2. 2.1.1 The core argument

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Logic and Ontology 1. Introduction Both logic and ontology are important areas of philosophy covering large, diverse, and active research projects. These two areas overlap from time to time and problems or questions arise that concern both. This survey article is intended to discuss some of these areas of overlap. In particular, there is no single philosophical problem of the intersection of logic and ontology. ‘Logic’ and ‘ontology’ are big words in philosophy, and different philosophers have used them in different ways. 2. There are several quite different topics put under the heading of ‘logic’ in contemporary philosophy, and it is controversial how they relate to each other. 2.1. On the one hand, logic is the study of certain mathematical properties of artificial, formal languages. A second discipline, also called ‘logic’, deals with certain valid inferences and good reasoning based on them. And there are other notions of ‘logic’ as well. Overall, we can thus distinguish four notions of logic: 2.2. 3.

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