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Descartes, Rene [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]

René Descartes is often credited with being the “Father of Modern Philosophy.” This title is justified due both to his break with the traditional Scholastic-Aristotelian philosophy prevalent at his time and to his development and promotion of the new, mechanistic sciences. His fundamental break with Scholastic philosophy was twofold. First, Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge. Descartes attempted to address the former issue via his method of doubt. Once this conclusion is reached, Descartes can proceed to rebuild his system of previously dubious beliefs on this absolutely certain foundation. The presentation below provides an overview of Descartes’ philosophical thought as it relates to these various metaphysical, epistemological, religious, moral and scientific issues, covering the wide range of his published works and correspondence. Table of Contents 1. 2. a. b. 3. Related:  History of Philosophy, Definitions, Concepts

George Berkeley 1. Life and philosophical works Berkeley was born in 1685 near Kilkenny, Ireland. After several years of schooling at Kilkenny College, he entered Trinity College, in Dublin, at age 15. He was made a fellow of Trinity College in 1707 (three years after graduating) and was ordained in the Anglican Church shortly thereafter. At Trinity, where the curriculum was notably modern, Berkeley encountered the new science and philosophy of the late seventeenth century, which was characterized by hostility towards Aristotelianism. Berkeley's first important published work, An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709), was an influential contribution to the psychology of vision and also developed doctrines relevant to his idealist project. Shortly after returning to London, Berkeley composed the Theory of Vision, Vindicated and Explained, a defense of his earlier work on vision, and the Analyst, an acute and influential critique of the foundations of Newton's calculus. 2. 2.1.1 The core argument

Logic and Ontology 1. Introduction Both logic and ontology are important areas of philosophy covering large, diverse, and active research projects. These two areas overlap from time to time and problems or questions arise that concern both. This survey article is intended to discuss some of these areas of overlap. In particular, there is no single philosophical problem of the intersection of logic and ontology. ‘Logic’ and ‘ontology’ are big words in philosophy, and different philosophers have used them in different ways. 2. There are several quite different topics put under the heading of ‘logic’ in contemporary philosophy, and it is controversial how they relate to each other. 2.1. On the one hand, logic is the study of certain mathematical properties of artificial, formal languages. A second discipline, also called ‘logic’, deals with certain valid inferences and good reasoning based on them. And there are other notions of ‘logic’ as well. Overall, we can thus distinguish four notions of logic: 2.2. 3.

Ontology: Theory and History from a Philosophical Perspective untitled Epicurus’ Four Cures | The Partially Examined Life | A Philosophy Podcast and Blog As the annals of history have it, in the sixth century Emperor Justinian had all the schools of philosophy that competed with Christianity finally closed. This was the last we heard of the Epicurean School, whose tradition had remained culturally vibrant for seven centuries. Epicurus had been among the first to propose the atom (2,300 years ago), the social contract as a foundation for the rule of law, and the possibility of an empirical process of pursuit of happiness: a science of happiness. These progressive schools were oases of tranquility, reason and pleasure known as Gardens, where the ideals of civilized friendship flourished and men, women, and even slaves engaged in philosophical discourse as equals. If any set of doctrines can be considered the foundation of the Epicurean philosophy, it would be the Tetrapharmakon: The Four Remedies. For didactic purposes, the teachings were imparted in the form of short, easy to memorize adages. Do not fear the gods. (Humanist Press, 2014).

Schools of Thought Timeline of Schools of Thought Rationalism Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Psychoanalysis Rationalism This school of thought takes on various philosophical positions that rely on the function of reason when searching for truth. Rene Descartes To learn more about Descartes go to: Descartes has been a major influence on philosophical psychology in several ways. Structuralism This school of thought was based on the notion that the object of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. Edward Bradford Titchener Titchener studied under Wundt in Leipzig then took his teachings to America. Wilhelm Wundt To learn more about Wundt go to: *Experimental psychology is the scientific study of behavior, motives or cognition in a laboratory setting in order to predict, explain or control behavior. Functionalism Harvey Carr

Epistemology 1. The Varieties of Cognitive Success There are many different kinds of cognitive success, and they differ from one another along various dimensions. Exactly what these various kinds of success are, and how they differ from each other, and how they are explanatorily related to each other, and how they can be achieved or obstructed, are all matters of controversy. 1.1 What Kinds of Thing Enjoy Cognitive Success? Cognitive successes can differ from each other by virtue of qualifying different kinds of things. Some of the recent controversies concerning the objects of cognitive success concern the metaphysical relations among the cognitive successes of various kinds of objects: Does the cognitive success of a process involve anything over and above the cognitive success of each state in the succession of states that comprise the execution of that process? 1.2 Constraints and Values We’ve used the term “constraint” to denote the bounds of what is epistemically permissible. 1.4. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Glossary Definition: Postmodernism A general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. Postmodernism is "post" because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody - a characterisitic of the so-called "modern" mind.

Democritus - Ancient Greek Philosopher Democritus (460 BCE 370 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher. He is known for his influence on modern science more than any other pre-Socratic philosopher. He was also known as the “Laughing Philosopher", for his tendency to mock fellow citizens for their follies. What Democritus left has not survived in all of its physicality, but he has been written about by Aristotle (Aristotle found him to be his biggest competitor in the natural sciences), Theophrastus, Diogenes, along with a few others. Atomist philosophy borders heavily on what today is considered scientific although Leucippus and Democritus were not privy to empirical reasoning behind their theory of atoms. Atoms did not make up just everyday objects for Democritus, but influenced his thoughts on sight, senses and souls. The question of epistemology becomes difficult with Democritus in regards to his ultra-materialist stance.

The Roots of Consciousness: History, The Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment Descartes and Mind-Body Dualism Rene Descartes Rene Descartes (1596-1650), who was certainly not an occult scholar or even a sympathizer, nevertheless attributed all of his philosophic ideas to images that appeared to him either in dreams or when he was in the hypnogogic state just before awakening. (In fact, he had to "prove his visibility" to keep from being associated with the Invisible College. The association of creativity with dreaaming apparently gave rise to public speculation about an actual college, perhaps diabolical, that dreamers visited in their sleep.) Mind body dualism was first formally stated in modern philosophy by Descartes. Leibnitz and Monadology Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz Carrying on the Pythagorean-Platonic doctrine of universal harmony, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz, who with Isaac Newton was the co-inventor of calculus, developed an elegant grand philosophy based on the concept of an evolving unit of consciousness called the monad. Idealism . .