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La Noosphère. Internet a-t-il de l’esprit? La Noosphere est un concept développé par Teilhard de Chardin, un philosophe/théologien/scientifique du début du XXeme siecle. Théorie vaguement délirante développée il y a près d’un siècle, elle connaît aujourd’hui un deuxième souffle avec le développement d’internet. Pour T. de Chardin, la noosphère est une enveloppe invisible qui recouvre la terre, comme la lithosphère, et qui contient une foule d’informations ainsi que les pensées des humains vivant sur terre. La notion de noosphère, un peu endormie depuis cent ans, a connu un nouveau souffle avec l’invention d’internet. On pourrait ainsi voir les sites comme des neurones et leurs liens comme des axones. Internet permettrait selon cette perspective à la pensée de toute l’humanité d’être connectée (à ce propos cf. ). Autres articles sur le sujet : .Le test de Turing bientôt réussi? Like this: J'aime chargement…

Organicism Philosophical and political conception of society as a living organism Organicism flourished for a period during the German romanticism intellectual movement and was a position considered by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling to be an important principle in the burgeoning field of biological studies.[8] Within contemporary biology, organicism stresses the organization (particularly the self-organizing properties) rather than the composition (the reduction into biological components) of organisms. John Scott Haldane was the first modern biologist to use the term to expand his philosophical stance in 1917; other 20th-century academics and professionals, such as Theodor Adorno and Albert Dalcq [fr], have followed in Haldane's wake.[9][10] Properly scientific interest in organicist biology has recently been revived with the extended evolutionary synthesis.[11][12] In philosophy[edit] Scott F. In politics and sociology[edit] In biology[edit] Theoretical Biology Club[edit] Ecology[edit]

Nothing Concept denoting the absence of something Nothing, the complete absence of anything, has been a matter of philosophical debate since at least the 5th century BC. Early Greek philosophers argued that it was impossible for nothing to exist. The atomists allowed nothing but only in the spaces between the invisibly small atoms. For them, all space was filled with atoms. Aristotle took the view that there exists matter and there exists space, a receptacle into which matter objects can be placed. Existentialists like Sartre and Heidegger (as interpreted by Sartre) have associated nothing with consciousness. Modern science does not equate vacuum with nothing. Philosophy Western philosophy Some would consider the study of "nothing" to be foolish. However, "nothingness" has been treated as a serious subject for a very long time. Parmenides One of the earliest Western philosophers to consider nothing as a concept was Parmenides (5th century BC), who was a Greek philosopher of the monist school. G.

Patterns of self-organization in ants Ants around a drop of honey Ants are simple animals and their behavioural repertory is limited to somewhere between ten and forty elementary behaviours. This is an attempt to explain the different patterns of self-organization in ants.[1] Ants as Complex Systems[edit] Ant colonies are self-organized systems: complex collective behaviors arise as the product of interactions between many individuals each following a simple set of rules, not via top-down instruction from elite individuals or the queen. No one worker has universal knowledge of the colony’s needs; individual workers react only to their local environment. The most popular current model of self-organization in ants and other social insects is the response threshold model. Bifurcation[edit] This is an instant transition of the whole system to a new stable pattern when a threshold is reached. Examples of pattern types: Synchronization[edit] Self organized waves[edit] Self-organized criticality[edit] References[edit]

Noosphère Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Ne doit pas être confondu avec NooSFere. La noosphère, selon la pensée de Vladimir Vernadsky[1] et Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, désigne la « sphère de la pensée humaine[2] ». Le mot est dérivé des mots grecs νοῦς (noüs, « l'esprit ») et σφαῖρα (sphaira, « sphère»), par analogie lexicale avec « atmosphère » et « biosphère[3] ». Ce néologisme a été introduit en 1922[4] par Teilhard de Chardin dans sa « cosmogénèse»[5]. Une autre possibilité est la première utilisation du terme par Édouard Le Roy qui était, avec Teilhard, auditeur des conférences de Vladimir Vernadsky à la Sorbonne. Dans la théorie originelle de Vernadsky, la noosphère est la troisième d'une succession de phases de développement de la Terre, après la géosphère (matière inanimée) et la biosphère (la vie biologique). Le concept[modifier | modifier le code] Notions préliminaires[modifier | modifier le code] Développement[modifier | modifier le code] ↑ Georgy S. Portail de la philosophie

Modular design Design approach Modular design, or modularity in design, is a design principle that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules (such as modular process skids), which can be independently created, modified, replaced, or exchanged with other modules or between different systems. Overview[edit] A modular design can be characterized by functional partitioning into discrete scalable and reusable modules, rigorous use of well-defined modular interfaces, and making use of industry standards for interfaces. In this context modularity is at the component level, and has a single dimension, component slottability. In design theory this is distinct from a modular system which has higher dimensional modularity and degrees of freedom. Modular design inherently combines the mass production advantages of standardization with those of customization. In vehicles[edit] The modular design of the Unimog offers attachment capabilities for various different implements. In televisions[edit]

Noumenon Object or event that exists independently of the senses Etymology[edit] The Greek word νοούμενoν, nooúmenon (plural νοούμενα, nooúmena) is the neuter middle-passive present participle of νοεῖν, noeîn, 'to think, to mean', which in turn originates from the word νοῦς, noûs, an Attic contracted form of νόος, nóos, 'perception, understanding, mind'. Historical predecessors[edit] Regarding the equivalent concepts in Plato, Ted Honderich writes: "Platonic Ideas and Forms are noumena, and phenomena are things displaying themselves to the senses... Kantian noumena[edit] Overview[edit] As expressed in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, human understanding is structured by "concepts of the understanding" or pure categories of understanding, found prior to experience in the mind and which make outer experiences possible as counterpart to the rational faculties of the mind.[7][8] Noumenon and the thing-in-itself[edit] He is much more doubtful about noumena: Positive and negative noumena[edit] See also[edit]

Metasystem transition A metasystem transition is the emergence, through evolution, of a higher level of organization or control. The concept of metasystem transition was introduced by the cybernetician Valentin Turchin in his 1970 book "The Phenomenon of Science", and developed among others by Francis Heylighen in the Principia Cybernetica Project. The related notion of evolutionary transition was proposed by the biologists John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry, in their 1995 book The Major Transitions in Evolution. Another related idea, that systems ("operators") evolve to become more complex by successive closures encapsulating components in a larger whole, is proposed in "The operator theory", developed by Gerard Jagers op Akkerhuis. Turchin has applied the concept of metasystem transition in the domain of computing, via the notion of metacompilation or supercompilation. Evolutionary Quanta[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]