Self-determination theory In the 1970s, research on SDT evolved from studies comparing the intrinsic and extrinsic motives, and from growing understanding of the dominant role intrinsic motivation played in an individual’s behavior but it was not until mid-1980s that SDT was formally introduced and accepted as a sound empirical theory. Research applying SDT to different areas in social psychology has increased considerably since the 2000s. Key studies that led to emergence of SDT included research on intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation). Basic theory SDT is centered on the belief that human nature shows persistent positive features, that it repeatedly shows effort, agency and commitment in their lives that the theory calls "inherent growth tendencies." CompetenceRelatednessAutonomy Needs
Are You a Psychopath? Take the Test. | Big Think TV What's the Big Idea? The famous "trolley problem" was a psychological experiment developed by Philippa Foot that involved a railway trolley headed toward five people who can't get out of the way. These people will die unless you, the subject of this experiment, decide to divert the trolley onto another track. That decision comes with a cost. There is another person stuck on that track as well, and that person will die. Well, most people have little difficulty making the "utilitarian" choice of choosing to kill one person instead of five. Thomson's variation is this: "You are standing behind a very large stranger on a footbridge above the tracks. This question was taken up by the Cambridge psychologist Dr. Dutton administers the test in the video here: What's the Significance? In other words, if you, assuming you are a "normal" reader, are hooked up to an fMRI machine, your amygdala would "light up like a pinball machine" when presented with the "personal" version of the trolley dilemma.
Humanistic psychology Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B.F. Skinner's behaviorism. With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes individuals inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. It typically holds that people are inherently good. It adopts a holistic approach to human existence and pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free will, and human potential. It encourages viewing ourselves as a "whole person" greater than the sum of our parts and encourages self exploration rather than the study of behavior in other people. Humanistic psychology acknowledges spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the human psyche. Origins One of humanistic psychology's early sources was the work of Carl Rogers, who was strongly influenced by Otto Rank, who broke with Freud in the mid-1920s.
A more peaceful world awaits The combination of higher education, lower infant mortality, smaller youth cohorts, and lower population growth are a few of the reasons why the world can expect a more peaceful future. (Photo: Colourbox) In 1992, almost every fourth country was involved in an armed conflict. This is indicated by new and sensational conflict simulations by Professor Håvard Hegre of the Department of Political Science at the University of Oslo, conducted in cooperation with the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO). "The number of conflicts is falling. Great variations In 5 years the risk of conflict will be greatest in India, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Uganda and Burma. According to Hegre, those countries in which the risk of conflict will sink most in the next 40 years are Algeria, Colombia, Turkey and Thailand. The simulations also show which ongoing conflicts in 2011 will probably be over in 5 years. The conflict model In the 1700s it was normal to go to war to expand your country's territory.
Science of what happens when we die Home»Human Consciousness Project The Human Consciousness Project is an international consortium of multidisciplinary scientists and physicians who have joined forces to research the nature of consciousness and its relationship with the brain, as well as the neuronal processes that mediate and correspond to different facets of consciousness. The Human Consciousness ProjectSM will conduct the world’s first large-scale scientific study of what happens when we die and the relationship between mind and brain during clinical death. The Human Consciousness ProjectSM was successfully launched in September 2008 at a symposium held at the United Nations. The diverse expertise of the team ranges from cardiac arrest, near-death experiences, and neuroscience to neuroimaging, critical care, emergency medicine, immunology, molecular biology, mental health, and psychiatry. Contrary to popular perception, death is not a specific moment, but a well-defined process.
Dreams Without Nightmares, Hygeine for Our Souls Picure: Fibonacci (CC)“Thoughts are things” – Prentice Mulford, noted American philosopher. Part 3, Essays for the Discordian occultist: introduction to the art of freaking out Previous articles in this series, “Life is but a dream” and “Living The Dream,” have deliberately avoided too much theory and focused instead on practice. One of the reasons we started in Part 1 with lucid dreaming is because it acts as a safe environment for your early magick use while teaching you most of the essentials in a fairly short period of time. For example, in that particular state you will have noticed the slightest negative thought manifests instantly. Furthermore, if you set out to have a nightmare it’s not hard to make yourself wake up screaming. Now your experiments are moving into the external world where you will have spent years learning how limited your power is. 1, Cultivate a level of “mindfulness” with daily meditation Meditation is a good start. 2, Adopt a temporary moral code. Footnotes:
Carl Gustav Jung Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Vous lisez un « article de qualité ». Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung photographié en 1910 Carl Gustav Jung (prononcé [ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf ˈjʊŋ] écouter) est un médecin, psychiatre, psychologue et essayiste suisse né le 26 juillet 1875 à Kesswil, canton de Thurgovie, et mort le 6 juin 1961 à Küsnacht, canton de Zurich, en Suisse alémanique. Penseur influent, il est l'auteur de nombreux ouvrages de psychologie et de psychosociologie en langue allemande traduits en de nombreuses autres langues. Carl Gustav Jung a été un pionnier de la psychologie des profondeurs en soulignant le lien existant entre la structure de la psyché (c'est-à-dire l'« âme », dans le vocabulaire jungien) et ses productions et manifestations culturelles. Père fondateur d'une psychologie des cultures, il a rassemblé autour de ses travaux des générations de thérapeutes, d'analystes et d'artistes. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Premières années[modifier | modifier le code]
12 Tips to Create a Peaceful, Passionate Life “Get out of your head and get into your heart. Think less, feel more.” ~Osho Osho’s game was to get people out of their heads. He wasn’t focused on world peace; he was intent on self-peace. How do you get out of your head? For most of my life, I was stuck in my head. After years of quietly suffering and pretending to be happy, I came to understand that my stuckness was caused by numbness—physical, emotional, and spiritual. Physically: I have been “out of my body” for 99.999% of my life—unless you’re talking about the heaviness on my chest, lump in my throat, and raciness in my head. Also, I felt inadequate and insecure in most of my intimate relationships. Emotionally: I never felt good enough to speak my truths and share how I really felt. Spirituality: Because of all the lying, I didn’t trust myself. One day, I ran away. I felt so scared and lost. It wasn’t overnight, but eventually I stopped looking for myself. 1. Everything in your life is a response to your feelings. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Hierarchy Physiological needs Safety needs Safety and Security needs include:
The Wisdom of Insecurity | 21st Century Spirituality Security is perhaps the most well-known illusion human beings have contrived. From the cursory seduction of emotional stability to the wrathful manifestation of raging armies, the painful longing for complete ease blankets our species. Somewhere along our evolutionary trail the quest for safety transformed into an unapologetic demand for protection, from foreigners as well as our own hearts, however errant a goal that might seem. We’ve pawned the responsibility of security to a higher being through innumerable oblations: crops and virgins and tobacco and dances. In its modern presentation, security is to be achieved through belief—the power of intention, we are told, dictates the parameters for everything we experience. This sentiment runs across the gamut of America’s spiritual brands, from Joel Osteen’s ever-purposeful (and vindictive) God to Marianne Williamson’s divinely rewarding cosmos. God will restore you. And this, from Williamson’s latest book, The Law of Divine Compensation:
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