Orphic mosaics were found in many late-Roman villas Orphism (more rarely Orphicism) (Ancient Greek: Ὀρφικά) is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and the Hellenistic world, as well as by the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into Hades and returned. Orphics also revered Persephone (who annually descended into Hades for a season and then returned) and Dionysus or Bacchus (who also descended into Hades and returned). Orpheus was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus. Poetry containing distinctly Orphic beliefs has been traced back to the 6th century BC or at least 5th century BC, and graffiti of the 5th century BC apparently refers to "Orphics". The main elements of Orphism differed from popular ancient Greek religion in the following ways: Compare with Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Gnosticism. I am a son of Earth and starry sky.
Apeiron (cosmology)Apeiron (ἄπειρον) is a Greek word meaning "unlimited," "infinite", or "indefinite" from ἀ- a-, "without" and πεῖραρ peirar, "end, limit", the Ionic Greek form of πέρας peras, "end, limit, boundary". His ideas were influenced by the Greek mythical tradition and by his teacher Thales (7th-6th century BC). Searching for some universal principle, Anaximander retained the traditional religious assumption that there was a cosmic order and tried to explain it rationally, using the old mythical language which ascribed divine control on various spheres of reality. This language was more suitable for a society which could see gods everywhere; therefore the first glimmerings of laws of nature were themselves derived from divine laws. The Greeks believed that the universal principles could also be applied to human societies. The word nomos (law) may originally have meant natural law and used later to mean man-made law. Scholars in other fields, e.g.
1611 biblePythagoreanismPythagoreanism was the system of esoteric and metaphysical beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics, music and astronomy. Pythagoreanism originated in the 5th century BC and greatly influenced Platonism. Later revivals of Pythagorean doctrines led to what is now called Neopythagoreanism. Two schools According to tradition, Pythagoreanism developed at some point into two separate schools of thought: the mathēmatikoi (μαθηματικοί, Greek for "learners") andthe akousmatikoi (ἀκουσματικοί, Greek for "listeners"). The mathēmatikoi The mathēmatikoi were supposed to have extended and developed the more mathematical and scientific work begun by Pythagoras. The akousmatikoi The akousmatikoi focused on the more religious and ritualistic aspects of his teachings: they claimed that the mathēmatikoi were not genuinely Pythagorean, but followers of the "renegade" Pythagorean Hippasus. Natural philosophy
GlandsOrpheusRoman mosaic depicting Orpheus, wearing a Phrygian cap and surrounded by the beasts charmed by the music of his lyre. Orpheus (/ˈɔrfiːəs/ or /ˈɔrfjuːs/; Ancient Greek: Ὀρφεύς) was a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. The major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and even stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, Eurydice, from the underworld, and his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture including poetry, opera, and painting. Background The earliest literary reference to Orpheus is a two-word fragment of the sixth-century BC lyric poet Ibycus: onomaklyton Orphēn ("Orpheus famous-of-name"). Mythology Early life Travelling as an Argonaut
Statue of LibertyReligion in MesopotamiaThe god Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Sumerian and East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian and later migrant Arameans and Chaldeans, living in Mesopotamia (a region encompassing modern Iraq, Kuwait, southeast Turkey and northeast Syria) that dominated the region for a period of 4200 years from the fourth millennium BCE throughout Mesopotamia to approximately the 10th century CE in Assyria. Mesopotamian polytheism was the only religion in ancient Mesopotamia for thousands of years before entering a period of gradual decline beginning between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE. Reconstruction As with most dead religions, many aspects of the common practices and intricacies of the doctrine have been lost and forgotten over time. History Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia. Akkadian names first appear in king lists of these states circa 2800 BCE. Religion in the Neo-Assyrian Empire "Enlil!
PhaneETCSLhomepageorphismDIOSCURI : Greek Gods of Horsemanship, Protectors of Sailors | Mythology, Dioskouroi, w/ picturesTHE DIOSKOUROI (or Dioscuri) were twin star-crowned gods whose appearance (in the form of St Elmo's fire) on the rigging of a ships was believed to portent escape from a storm. They were also gods of horsemanship and protectors of guests and travellers. The twins were born as mortal princes, sons of the Spartan queen Leda, one being fathered by Zeus the other by her husband Tyndareus. Because of their generosity and kindness to man they were apotheosed into gods at death. The Dioskouroi also received a place amongst the stars as the Cosntellation Gemini (the Twins). The Dioskouroi were depicted as beardless youths, horsemen wearing wide-brimmed traveller's hats. Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 66 (from Scholiast on Pindar Nem. x. 150) (trans. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 14 (trans. Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 155 : "Sons of Jove [Zeus] . . . Details of the mortal lives of the Dioskouroi are not quoted here. Pindar, Pythian Ode 11 ep4 (trans. Alcman, Fragment 2 (trans.