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Dunbar's number

Dunbar's number
Related:  Social, Economic, Political EnvironmentsSocietal evolution

Paris climate deal: key points at a glance | Environment Keeping temperature rises below 1.5C Governments have agreed to limit warming to 1.5C above pre-industrial levels: something that would have seemed unthinkable just a few months ago. There is a scientific rationale for the number. John Schellnhuber, a scientist who advises Germany and the Vatican, says 1.5C marks the point where there is a real danger of serious “tipping points” in the world’s climate. The goal of 1.5C is a big leap below the 2C that nearly 200 countries agreed as a limit six years ago in Copenhagen. As many of the green groups here in Paris note, the 1.5C aspiration is meaningless if there aren’t measures for hitting it. Pledges to curb emissions Before the conference started, more than 180 countries had submitted pledges to cut or curb their carbon emissions (intended nationally defined contributions, or INDCs, in the UN jargon). The INDCs are recognised under the agreement, but are not legally binding. Long-term global goal for net zero emissions Loss and damage Money

Allen curve In Communication theory, the Allen curve is a graphical representation that reveals the exponential drop of frequency of communication between engineers as the distance between them increases. It was discovered by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Thomas J. Allen in the late 1970s. [A related and highly significant finding of Allen was his identification of the key role for information gatekeepers. Often such interlocutors were poorly recognized by management and yet conveyed vital concepts from just the right people to just the right other people in the organization.] Discovery[edit] During the late 1970s, Allen undertook a project to determine how the distance between engineers’ offices affects the frequency of technical communication between them. This finding was originally documented in Allen’s book, Managing the Flow of Technology.[1] Recent development[edit] He further explains[2] Significance[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Thomas J.

Caring doesn't scale We are social creatures. We align ourselves in groups made of family, friends, co-workers, neighbors, etc. When we have similar interests in activities, beliefs, political leanings and shared experiences, these bonds are strong. When we occasionally bump into the same people on our way to work, we might smile and say hello, but these are much shallower interactions. The sad reality is, we cannot care equally deeply about everyone. The same is true in distributed systems. When we speak about Resource-Oriented systems, we are referring to a specific design orientation. One of the central notions of the Web is that we separate the identity of a resource from its representation and implementation. Separating identity from representation allows clients to evolve independently from each other. A client is coupled to the representation, not the server. When you point a browser to a website it has never visited before, it doesn't stop and ask for directions or documentation.

Is Your Team Too Big? Too Small? What's the Right Number? When it comes to athletics, sports teams have a specific number of team players: A basketball team needs five, baseball nine, and soccer 11. But when it comes to the workplace, where teamwork is increasingly widespread throughout complex and expanding organizations, there is no hard-and-fast rule to determine the optimal number to have on each team. Should the most productive team have 4.6 team members, as suggested in a recent article on “How to Build a Great Team” in Fortune magazine? What about naming five or six individuals to each team, which is the number of MBA students chosen each year by Wharton for its 144 separate learning teams? Is it true that larger teams simply break down, reflecting a tendency towards “social loafing” and loss of coordination? Or is there simply no magic team number, a recognition of the fact that the best number of people is driven by the team’s task and by the roles each person plays? Each Person Counts Second, she says, “what is the team composition?

Commune, Collective, or Community – The Secret to Aggregating Users and Creating Value Are you organizing people the right way? I read a post from @TheBrandBuilder where he talked about dropping the word followers from Twitter, replacing it with something else. He made the point that it is not about leading, it is about creating a community. I read a post from @Scobleizer decrying Twitter and FriendFeed in favor of a blog so that the knowledge can be retained. The problem comes down to definitions. A commune is a cacophonic group. Twitter is an excellent commune. A collective is a one-way conversation when a group of users shares a common goal, with strict operating guidelines, a hierarchy, and an entity that “leads” ensuring all users have the same goal. Collectives require knowledge management. A community is a like-minded group of individuals that favors two-way communication as a way to increase their power and knowledge. Communities manage reputations to add value to the experience. What are you building? 2gkj7uhq3n Like this: Like Loading...

Paris climate talks: Bishop hails 'historic' day as nearly 200 countries sign deal | Environment Governments have signalled an end to the fossil fuel era, committing for the first time to a universal agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions and to avoid the most dangerous effects of climate change at crunch United Nations talks in Paris. Speaking outside the conference hall, a jubilant foreign affairs minister, Julie Bishop, said the agreement involving all nations and trading competitors could give Australia “comfort” to take tougher action to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. After 20 years of fraught meetings, including the past two weeks spent in an exhibition hall on the outskirts of Paris, negotiators from nearly 200 countries signed on to a deal on Saturday evening that set ambitious goals to limit temperature rise and hold governments to account for reaching those targets. After an anxious two-hour wait for the final plenary session to begin, Laurent Fabius, the French foreign minister, who was chairing the meeting, invited delegates to adopt the agreement.

Takeshi's Komanechi University Mathematics I suppose some of you might already know Takeshi Kitano as a filmmaker, who shot great movies like Sonatine and Kikujiro. Here in Japan, he is very famous, but not for his movies. More that a filmmaker, he is popular as a comedian and appears a lot on TV, know as Beat Takeshi. But what you might not know, even living in Japan, is the Math Kitano the mathematician. This passion for mathematics gave birth in 2006 to the TV program "Takeshi's Komanechi University Mathematics" (たけしのコマネチ大学数学科).Aired every Thursday between 25:15 and 25:45 on Fuji Television, this program aims at showing the charm of mathematics while being as well an entertainment program.Every week, three teams are trying to solve a problem (of university entry level): Takeshi, aka "Math Kitano", two pretty student girls from Tokyo University, and a a group of four comedians. After discovering this TV program, I just became addicted, and found myself solving these problems every week.

Göreme Göreme (pronounced [ˈɟøɾeme]; Ancient Greek: Κόραμα, Kòrama), located among the "fairy chimney" rock formations, is a town in Cappadocia, a historical region of Turkey. It is in the Nevşehir Province in Central Anatolia and has a population of around 2,000 people.[1] Former names of the town have been Korama, Matiana, Maccan or Machan, and Avcilar.[2] When Göreme Valley nearby was designated an important tourist destination, a "center" for all tourism in Cappadocia, the name of the town was changed to Göreme for practical reasons. The Göreme National Park (tr) (Göreme Tarihî Millî Parkı in Turkish) was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.[1] The time that the Göreme was first settled is unclear, but it could date back as the Hittite era, between 1800 and 1200 B.C. Gallery[edit] Fairy Chimney Rock Formations.Goreme national park as seen from space. See also[edit] References[edit] ^ a b Lynch, Paul; McIntosh, Alison J.; Tucker, Hazel (2009-06-02). External links[edit]

Effects of Group Size on Problem Solving Are individuals or groups better at solving problems? According to one study, groups of three to five people perform better than individuals when solving complex problems. The research, published in the April issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, suggests that groups of three people are able to solve difficult problems better than even the best individuals working alone. Researchers had 760 student participants from the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign solve letters-to-numbers code problems, working either individually or as part of a group. In an April 23, 2006 APA press release, lead researcher Patrick Laughlin attributed the improved performance of groups to "the ability of people to work together to generate and adopt correct responses, reject erroneous responses, and effectively process information." This study has a number of implications in academics, science, medicine and business. Further Reading on Group Problem Solving Bonner, B. Bray, R.

Allen curve In communication theory, the Allen curve is a graphical representation that reveals the exponential drop in frequency of communication between engineers as the distance between them increases. It was discovered by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Thomas J. Allen in the late 1970s. A related and highly significant finding of Allen was his identification of the key role of information gatekeepers. Often such interlocutors were poorly recognized by management and yet conveyed vital concepts from just the right people to just the right other people in the organization. Discovery[edit] During the late 1970s, Allen undertook a project to determine how the distance between engineers’ offices affects the frequency of technical communication between them. This finding was originally documented in Allen’s book, Managing the Flow of Technology.[1] Recent development[edit] He further explains[2] Significance[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] "Thomas J Allen".

Social Determinants of Health The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines the social determinants of health as the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for health inequities - the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries. In Australia country people are subject to the same types of social disadvantage as can occur in cities (such as lower educational attainment, job uncertainties and unemployment, poor access to appropriate housing etc). However, in rural and remote communities the health effects of this disadvantage are compounded by poor access to communications (such as high speed broadband, mobile phone coverage, public transport) and environmental challenges (such as drought, floods and bushfire). A Snapshot of Poverty.. Fact Sheet on Determinants of Health

SME Small and Medium Sized Enterprises - SME Policy Office SME Policy Office The SME Policy Office in ESA handles the implementation and management of policies adopted by ESA regarding SMEs. The Office also coordinates its SME-related actions and activities with other institutional actors, such as the national space agencies. The SME Policy Office implements a variety of actions to reinforce the technical capabilities and sustainability of high-technology SMEs. These include: funding the validation and adaptation of technologies from SMEs, so as to satisfy space engineering requirements; providing access to dedicated training programmes and technical expertise; support for partnership and business networking. The mission of the SME Policy Office translates into the following objectives: This website is managed by the SME Policy Office and presents information which can help SMEs in ESA's member, cooperation agreement, and cooperating States, to improve their capabilities and opportunities to work with ESA and within the European space industry.

London Review Bookshop | About Us Located in the heart of Bloomsbury, just a Rosetta Stone’s throw from the British Museum, the London Review Bookshop has established itself as an essential part of the capital’s cultural life. Opened in 2003 by the London Review of Books, it’s a place for people who love books to meet, talk, drink excellent tea and coffee, consume delicious cake, and of course, browse. Our selection of more than 20,000 titles ranges from the classics of world literature to the cutting edge of contemporary fiction and poetry, not forgetting a copious display of history, politics, philosophy, cookery, essays and children’s books. Our aim has always been to represent on our shelves the distinctive ethos of the Review – intelligent without being pompous; engaged without being partisan. Don’t just take our word for it. Find and Contact Us Around Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is home to some of London’s most interesting buildings, shops, museums and galleries, as well as possessing an unparalleled literary heritage.

Issues in Community: Size How much does size matter in community? The community I helped found in North Cambridge never had more than five or six adults (plus two children), and FEC groups like Sandhill Farm (currently seven adults and one child) and the Emma Goldman Finishing School in Seattle (currently eight adults) are relatively small. My belief is that you need at least four members to have a functioning community. There are joys about living in a small community (closer connections, for example) and difficulties (closer connections, for example). My experience is that the smaller a community is, the more intense it can get. On the other hand, communities can be fairly large. In my recent post Connected (2/3/13), I mentioned 'Dunbar's number', which the authors said was the optimal size for social groups, around 150 members. Acorn has also decided that they don't want to have any more than the thirty odd members that they have. Certainly communities function differently at different sizes.

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