Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is an early form of the English language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons and their descendants in parts of what are now England and southern and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. What survives through writing represents primarily the literary register of Anglo-Saxon. Adjectives, pronouns and (sometimes) participles agreed with their antecedent nouns in case, number and gender. Finite verbs agreed with their subject in person and number. Gender in nouns was grammatical, as opposed to the natural gender that prevails in modern English. From the 9th century, Old English experienced heavy influence from Old Norse, a member of the related North Germanic group of languages. History The distribution of the primary Germanic dialect groups in Europe in around AD 1: The history of Old English can be subdivided into: Influence of other languages Latin influence
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Introduction to Intonation | English Pronunciation Lesson | Elemental EnglishThis lesson is from the Elemental English pronunciation series on Intonation: Listen to the audio!: Podcast: Play in new window Speaking and understanding English doesn’t just come from using correct grammar and vocabulary. Native English speakers convey meaning in their sentences with pitch — the ups and downs and the musical notes of their sentences. Example The following two sentences contain the same words. 1) “She got a dog.” 2) “She got a dog?!” In these two simple sentences, the focus word of the sentence–the word that gets the most emphasis–is “dog”. But what happened with the sound of the focus word? In sentence one, the intonation went DOWN to indicate the completion of the thought. In sentence two, the intonation went way UP, to indicate surprise. The patterns of ups and downs of your voice (and your pitch) on and after the focus word–which is usually at the end of a sentence or question–is called intonation. In English, there are three intonation patterns: Rise Full fall Partial fall