Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is an early form of the English language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons and their descendants in parts of what are now England and southern and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. What survives through writing represents primarily the literary register of Anglo-Saxon. Adjectives, pronouns and (sometimes) participles agreed with their antecedent nouns in case, number and gender. Finite verbs agreed with their subject in person and number. Gender in nouns was grammatical, as opposed to the natural gender that prevails in modern English. From the 9th century, Old English experienced heavy influence from Old Norse, a member of the related North Germanic group of languages. History The distribution of the primary Germanic dialect groups in Europe in around AD 1: The history of Old English can be subdivided into: Influence of other languages Latin influence
Related: The Evolution of the English Alphabet.
Yehweh Not Yahweh - The Most Accurate Pronunciation Using the Original HebrewOld English / Anglo-SaxonOld English was the West Germanic language spoken in the area now known as England between the 5th and 11th centuries. Speakers of Old English called their language Englisc, themselves Angle, Angelcynn or Angelfolc and their home Angelcynn or Englaland. Old English began to appear in writing during the early 8th century. Most texts were written in West Saxon, one of the four main dialects. The other dialects were Mercian, Northumbrian and Kentish. The Anglo-Saxons adopted the styles of script used by Irish missionaries, such as Insular half-uncial, which was used for books in Latin. Anglo-Saxon runes (futhorc/fuþorc) Old English / Anglo-Saxon was first written with a version of the Runic alphabet known as Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Frisian runes, or futhorc/fuþorc. Runic inscriptions are mostly found on jewellery, weapons, stones and other objects, and only about 200 such inscriptions have survived. Old English alphabet Notes Long vowels were marked with macrons. Old English pronunciation Links
Anglo-Saxon runesThe left half of the front panel of the 7th century Franks Casket, depicting the Germanic legend of Weyland Smith and containing a riddle in Anglo-Saxon runes. The Anglo-Saxon runes (also Anglo-Frisian), also known as futhorc (or fuþorc), is a runic alphabet, extended from the Elder Futhark from 24 to between 26 and 33 characters. They were used probably from the 5th century onward, recording Old English and Old Frisian. They remained in use in Anglo-Saxon England throughout the 6th to 10th centuries, although runic script became increasingly confined to manuscript tradition as a topic of antiquarian interest after the 9th century, and it disappeared even as a learned curiosity soon after the Norman conquest. History There are competing theories as to the origins of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc. The early futhorc was identical to the Elder Futhark except for the split of ᚨ a into three variants ᚪ āc, ᚫ æsc and ᚩ ōs, resulting in 26 runes. Letters The futhorc. ᛤ kk) ᛥ stan "stone" st
Joachim of Fiore (c. 1135 - 1202) Used the Name "IEUE" [Yehweh] for the Tetragrammaton - Yehweh Not YahwehJoachim of Fiore (aka "Joachim of Flora" and "Gioacchino da Fiore" [in Italian]) (c. 1135 – March 30, 1202)—was an Italian mystic, a theologian and an esoterist. He used the old English Name, "IEUE" for the tetragrammaton in his diagrams of the trinity [we do not believe in the trinity—but that we can still learn from his work]. "His famous Trinitarian 'IEUE' interlaced circles diagram was influenced by the different 3-circles Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram of Petrus Alphonsi, and in turn led to the use of the Borromean rings as a symbol of the Christian Trinity (and possibly also influenced the development of the Shield of the Trinity diagram). (Wikipedia: Joachim of Fiore). His diagrams are kept in the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, England, UK—and have the reference number, "MS CCC 255A f.7v.". Source:
LibriVoxOld English Latin alphabetIn the year 1011, a writer named Byrhtferð ordered the Old English alphabet for numerological purposes. He listed the 24 letters of the Latin alphabet (including et ligature) first, then 5 additional English letters, starting with the Tironian note ond (⁊), resulting in a list of 29 symbols: Old English was first written in runes (futhorc) but shifted to a (minuscule) half-uncial script of the Latin alphabet introduced by Irish Christian missionaries from around the 9th century. This was replaced by insular script, a cursive and pointed version of the half-uncial script. This was used until the end of the 12th century when continental Carolingian minuscule (also known as Caroline) replaced the insular. A number of changes are traditionally made in published modern editions of the original Old English manuscripts. Some of these conventions include the introduction of punctuation and the substitutions of symbols. See also English alphabet References External links
Joachim of FioreJoachim of Flora, in a 15th-century woodcut. Joachim of Fiore, also known as Joachim of Flora and in Italian Gioacchino da Fiore (c. 1135 – 30 March 1202), was the founder of the monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore. He was a mystic, a theologian, and an esotericist. His followers are called Joachimites. Biography Born in the small village of Celico near Cosenza, in Calabria, at the time part of the Kingdom of Sicily, Joachim was the son of Mauro the notary, who was well placed, and Gemma, his wife. About 1159 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, an episode about which very little is known, save that he underwent a spiritual crisis and conversion in Jerusalem that turned him from the worldly life. In 1182 Joachim appealed to Pope Lucius III, who relieved him of the temporal care of his abbey, and warmly approved of his work, bidding him continue it in whatever monastery he thought best. Theory of the three ages Condemnation Popular culture Literary reference
E-Intro to Old English - 1. The Anglo-Saxons1.1. Who were they? “Anglo-Saxon” is the term applied to the English-speaking inhabitants of Britain from around the middle of the fifth century until the time of the Norman Conquest, when the Anglo-Saxon line of English kings came to an end. According to the Venerable Bede, whose Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum [Ecclesiastical History of the English People], completed in the year 731, is the most important source for the early history of England, the Anglo-Saxons arrived in the island of Britain during the reign of Martian, who in 449 became co-emperor of the Roman Empire with Valentinian III and ruled for seven years. Before that time, Britain had been inhabited by speakers of Celtic languages: the Scots and Picts in the north, and in the south various groups which had been united under Roman rule since their conquest by the emperor Claudius in A.D. 43. It was during the reign of Martian that the newly-hired mercenaries arrived. 1.2. North Germanic, East Germanic, West Germanic,