Hardy-Weinberg The Hardy-Weinberg formulas allow scientists to determine whether evolution has occurred. Any changes in the gene frequencies in the population over time can be detected. The law essentially states that if no evolution is occurring, then an equilibrium of allele frequencies will remain in effect in each succeeding generation of sexually reproducing individuals. In order for equilibrium to remain in effect (i.e. that no evolution is occurring) then the following five conditions must be met: Obviously, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium cannot exist in real life. Some or all of these types of forces all act on living populations at various times and evolution at some level occurs in all living organisms. p = frequency of the dominant allele in the population q = frequency of the recessive allele in the population p2 = percentage of homozygous dominant individuals q2 = percentage of homozygous recessive individuals 2pq = percentage of heterozygous individuals PROBLEM #1.
Diseases - Manual - Activity 3, page 1 At a Glance Focus: Students investigate the growth of bacteria in the presence of antibiotics and use the results to explain a case of antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis, presented in an Internet-based interview. Major Concepts: The re-emergence of some diseases can be explained by evolution of the infectious agent (for example, mutations in bacterial genes that confer resistance to antibiotics used to treat the diseases). Objectives: After completing this activity, students will be able to explain how antibiotic treatment results in populations of bacteria that are largely resistant to the antibiotic and describe inappropriate and/or questionable uses of antibiotics. Prerequisite Knowledge: Students should be familiar with bacterial growth and with evolution by natural selection. Introduction In 1943, penicillin was introduced as the "magic bullet" for curing many infectious diseases. The primary reason for the increase in antibiotic resistance is evolution. Materials and Preparation 1.
PCR Virtual Lab / Learn Genetics Primers are short pieces of DNA that are made in a laboratory. Since they're custom built, primers can have any sequence of nucleotides you'd like. In a PCR experiment, two primers are designed to match to the segment of DNA you want to copy. Through complementary base pairing, one primer attaches to the top strand at one end of your segment of interest, and the other primer attaches to the bottom strand at the other end. Primers are also necessary because DNA polymerase can't attach at just any old place and start copying away. DNA Polymerase is a naturally occurring complex of proteins whose function is to copy a cell's DNA before it divides in two. The DNA polymerase in our bodies breaks down at temperatures well below 95 °C (203 °F), the temperature necessary to separate two complementary strands of DNA in a test tube. Nucleotides are the building blocks that DNA molecules are made of.
Seminars on Frontiers in Genomics El Centro de Ciencias Genómicas y el Instituto de Biotecnología, en conjunto con la Licenciatura en Ciencias Genómicas y la Sociedad Mexicana de Ciencias Genómicas se complacen en invitar a la comunidad académica a la Serie de Seminarios: “Frontiers in Genomics” mismos que se impartirán los Martes a las 5:00pm de Febrero a Mayo de 2014, por colegas invitados del extranjero expertos en distintas áreas de la genómica, tales como bioinformática, genómica funcional, genómica evolutiva, genómica humana, genómica bacteriana, análisis computacional y experimental, genómica comparativa, estadística y tecnología. Estos seminarios permitirán a los interesados adentrarse en la investigación de frontera que se realiza en el mundo en ciencias genómicas. Las pláticas se llevarán a cabo de manera presencial en Cuernavaca, en el Auditorio "Dr. Guillermo Soberón" del Centro de Ciencias Genómicas, o en el Auditorio del Instituto de Biotecnología, UNAM Campus Morelos.
9-12 teachers' lounge Teaching materials : 9-12 teachers' lounge :Identify your learning goals At the end of the school year, there are certain conceptual understandings that we want our students to have. Achieving these learning goals lays the groundwork for more sophisticated understandings as students proceed through their learning experiences. The conceptual framework is aligned with the 2012 Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Understanding Evolution Framework is divided into five strands, and a selection of teaching resources (i.e., lessons, activities, readers, and interactive online modules) targeting most concepts has been identified. Jump to: History of Life | Evidence of Evolution | Mechanisms of Evolution | Nature of Science | Studying Evolution
The driving force for molecular evolution of translation XbaI (R0145), Restriction Endonucleases, NEB The Certificate of Analysis (COA) is a signed document that includes the storage temperature, expiration date and quality control's for an individual lot. The following file naming structure is used to name these document files: [Product Number]_[Size]_[Version]_[Lot Number] The Specification sheet is a document that includes the storage temperature, shelf life and the specifications designated for the product. The following file naming structure is used to name these document files: [Product Number]_[Size]_[Version] The Product Summary Sheet, or Data Card, includes details for how to use the product, as well as details of its formulation and quality controls. The following file naming structure is used to name the majority of these document files: [Catalog Number]Datasheet-Lot[Lot Number].
Visualizing life on Earth: data interpretation in evolution Visualizing life on Earth: data interpretation in evolution by the Understanding Evolution team This pattern might seem obvious. In this module, you will examine the same data that scientists have used to try to answer this question and can compare your own ideas to those that scientists have come up with.