Hardy-Weinberg The Hardy-Weinberg formulas allow scientists to determine whether evolution has occurred. Any changes in the gene frequencies in the population over time can be detected. The law essentially states that if no evolution is occurring, then an equilibrium of allele frequencies will remain in effect in each succeeding generation of sexually reproducing individuals. In order for equilibrium to remain in effect (i.e. that no evolution is occurring) then the following five conditions must be met: Obviously, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium cannot exist in real life. Some or all of these types of forces all act on living populations at various times and evolution at some level occurs in all living organisms. p = frequency of the dominant allele in the population q = frequency of the recessive allele in the population p2 = percentage of homozygous dominant individuals q2 = percentage of homozygous recessive individuals 2pq = percentage of heterozygous individuals PROBLEM #1.
Diseases - Manual - Activity 3, page 1 At a Glance Focus: Students investigate the growth of bacteria in the presence of antibiotics and use the results to explain a case of antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis, presented in an Internet-based interview. Major Concepts: The re-emergence of some diseases can be explained by evolution of the infectious agent (for example, mutations in bacterial genes that confer resistance to antibiotics used to treat the diseases). Objectives: After completing this activity, students will be able to explain how antibiotic treatment results in populations of bacteria that are largely resistant to the antibiotic and describe inappropriate and/or questionable uses of antibiotics. Prerequisite Knowledge: Students should be familiar with bacterial growth and with evolution by natural selection. Introduction In 1943, penicillin was introduced as the "magic bullet" for curing many infectious diseases. The primary reason for the increase in antibiotic resistance is evolution. Materials and Preparation 1.
Extraordinary Adaptation 9-12 teachers' lounge Teaching materials : 9-12 teachers' lounge :Identify your learning goals At the end of the school year, there are certain conceptual understandings that we want our students to have. Achieving these learning goals lays the groundwork for more sophisticated understandings as students proceed through their learning experiences. The conceptual framework is aligned with the 2012 Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The Understanding Evolution Framework is divided into five strands, and a selection of teaching resources (i.e., lessons, activities, readers, and interactive online modules) targeting most concepts has been identified. Jump to: History of Life | Evidence of Evolution | Mechanisms of Evolution | Nature of Science | Studying Evolution
The driving force for molecular evolution of translation Peppered Moth Simulation Name:______________________________________________ Objective: Simulate changes in moth population due to pollution and predation, and observe how species can change over time. Introduction: Charles Darwin accumulated a tremendous collection of facts to support the theory of evolution by natural selection. One of his difficulties in demonstrating the theory, however, was the lack of an example of evolution over a short period of time, which could be observed as it was taking place in nature. The economic changes known as the industrial revolution began in the middle of the eighteenth century. Instructions: Click the link below to read more information on Kettlewell's study of moths. After 5 minutes record the % of dark moths and light moths - you will need this information later. Peppered Moth Simulation at peppermoths.weebly.com Data and Analysis Read the background information and answer the questions as you go. Life Cycle of the Peppered Moth 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Impact of Pollution 7. 8. 9.
Visualizing life on Earth: data interpretation in evolution Visualizing life on Earth: data interpretation in evolution by the Understanding Evolution team This pattern might seem obvious. In this module, you will examine the same data that scientists have used to try to answer this question and can compare your own ideas to those that scientists have come up with. Five fingers of evolution - Paul Andersen In his talk, Paul Andersen explains the five causes of microevolution. Research one example for each cause in the human population. Use the following population simulator to simulate microevolution: Run the simulation using the default settings.