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Ethology

Ethology
Ethology (from Greek: ἦθος, ethos, "character"; and -λογία, -logia, "the study of") is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, and is a sub-topic of zoology. The focus of ethology is on animal behaviour under natural conditions,[1] as opposed to behaviourism, which focuses on behavioural response studies in a laboratory setting. Many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour throughout history. The desire to understand animals has made ethology a rapidly growing field. Understanding ethology or animal behaviour can be important in animal training. Etymology[edit] The term ethology derives from the Greek word èthos (ήθος), meaning character. Relationship with comparative psychology[edit] Scala naturae and Lamarck's theories[edit] See also: Great Chain of Being Until the 19th century, the most common theory among scientists was still the concept of scala naturae, proposed by Aristotle. Theory of evolution by natural selection and the beginnings of ethology[edit] Related:  Societal evolution

Literae Humaniores Literae Humaniores is the name given to an undergraduate course focused on Classics (Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, Latin, ancient Greek and philosophy) at the University of Oxford and some other universities. The Latin name means literally "more humane literature", and was in contrast to the other main field of study when the university began, i.e. res divinae, aka theology. Lit. Hum. is concerned with human learning, and Lit. Div. with learning that came from God. In its early days, it encompassed mathematics and natural sciences as well. Lit. The University of Oxford's classics course, also known as "Greats", is divided into two parts, lasting five terms and seven terms respectively, the whole lasting four years in total, which is one year more than most arts degrees at Oxford and other English universities. The course of studies leads to a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree. Mods[edit] The Mods course runs for the first five terms of the course. Greats[edit] In 2004 the full Lit.

Ocean An ocean (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. Okeanós, the sea of classical antiquity[1]) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.[2] On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean, which occupies two-thirds of the planet's surface. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans.[3][4] The word sea is often used interchangeably with "ocean" in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land.[5] Earth's global ocean[edit] Global divisions[edit] Various ways to divide the World Ocean The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria. Physical properties[edit] The bluish color of water is a composite of several contributing agents. Zones with depth[edit] The major oceanic divisions Exploration[edit] Climate[edit] Biology[edit]

Isaiah Berlin Sir Isaiah Berlin OM CBE FBA (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.[1] He was an essayist, conversationalist, raconteur, and lecturer.[1] In its obituary of the scholar, the Independent stated that "Isaiah Berlin was often described, especially in his old age, by means of superlatives: the world's greatest talker, the century's most inspired reader, one of the finest minds of our time [...] there is no doubt that he showed in more than one direction the unexpectedly large possibilities open to us at the top end of the range of human potential".[2] In 1932, at the age of 23, Berlin was elected to a prize fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford. He translated works by Ivan Turgenev from Russian into English and, during the war, worked for the British Diplomatic Service. From 1957 to 1967 he was Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory at the University of Oxford. Life[edit] Thought[edit] Gerald C.

Surrealist automatism Automatism has taken on many forms: the automatic writing and drawing initially (and still to this day) practiced by surrealists can be compared to similar, or perhaps parallel phenomena, such as the non-idiomatic improvisation. Surrealist automatism is different from mediumistic automatism, from which the term was inspired. Ghosts, spirits or the like are not purported to be the source of surrealist automatic messages. Origins[edit] "Pure psychic automatism" was how André Breton defined surrealism, and while the definition has proved capable of significant expansion, automatism remains of prime importance in the movement. In 1919 Breton and Philippe Soupault wrote the first automatic book, Les Champs Magnétiques, while The Automatic Message (1933) was one of Breton's significant theoretical works about automatism. Surautomatism[edit] Automatic drawing[edit] Automatic drawing was pioneered by André Masson. Contemporary techniques[edit] See also[edit] [edit] External links[edit]

Two Concepts of Liberty "Positive liberty... is a valid universal goal. I do not know why I should have been held to doubt this, or, for that matter, the further proposition, that democratic self-government is a fundamental human need, something valuable in itself, whether or not it clashes with the claims of negative liberty or of any other goal... What I am mainly concerned to establish is that, whatever may be the common ground between them, and whatever is liable to graver distortion, negative and positive liberty are not the same thing." Isaiah Berlin, Five Essays on Liberty: An Introduction[1] "Two Concepts of Liberty" was the inaugural lecture delivered by the liberal philosopher Isaiah Berlin before the University of Oxford on 31 October 1958. It was subsequently published as a 57-page pamphlet by Oxford at the Clarendon Press. "As for Otanes, he wished neither to rule nor to be ruled—the exact opposite of Aristotle's notion of true civic liberty. ... Summary[edit] Positive liberty[edit] See also[edit]

Abiogenesis Scientific hypotheses about the origins of life can be divided into a number of categories. Many approaches investigate how self-replicating molecules or their components came into existence. On the assumption that life originated spontaneously on Earth, the Miller–Urey experiment and similar experiments demonstrated that most amino acids, often called "the building blocks of life", can be racemically synthesized in conditions which were intended to be similar to those of the early Earth. Early conditions[edit] The Hadean Earth is thought to have had a secondary atmosphere, formed through degassing of the rocks that accumulated from planetesimal impactors. The Hadean environment was highly hazardous to modern life. The earliest life on Earth[edit] Between 3.8 and 4.1 Ga, changes in the orbits of the gaseous giant planets may have caused a late heavy bombardment[22] that pockmarked the Moon and the other inner planets (Mercury, Mars, and presumably Earth and Venus). Current models[edit]

Counter-Enlightenment The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th-century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th-century Enlightenment. The term is usually associated with Isaiah Berlin, who is often credited with coining it, though there are several earlier uses of the term,[1] including one by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who wrote of Gegenaufklärung at the end of the 19th century. The first known use of the term in English was in 1908, but Berlin may have re-invented it. Berlin published widely about the Enlightenment and its enemies and did much to popularise the concept of a Counter-Enlightenment movement that he characterised as relativist, anti-rationalist, vitalist, and organic,[2] and which he associated most closely with German Romanticism. Counter-Enlightenment movement vs Enlightenment thinkers[edit] Counter-Enlightenment and Counter-Revolution[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit]

Animal communication Metacommunications are signals that modify the meaning of subsequent signals. One example is the 'play face' and tail signals in dogs, which indicate that a subsequent aggressive signal is part of a play fight rather than a serious aggressive episode. Animal communication is a rapidly growing area of study. Even in the 21st century, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture, learning and even animal sexual behaviour, long thought to be well understood, have been revolutionized. Modes[edit] A lamb investigates a rabbit, an example of interspecific communication using body posture and olfaction. Visual[edit] Gestures: The best known form of communication involves the display of distinctive body parts, or distinctive bodily movements; often these occur in combination, so a distinctive movement acts to reveal or emphasize a distinctive body part. Active visual displays. Passive visual displays. Auditory[edit]

Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment)[1][note 1] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 17th to 19th century.[3] Significant people and publications[edit] The most famous work by Nicholas de Condorcet, Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progres de l'esprit humain, 1795.[8] With the publication of this book, the development of the Age of Enlightenment is considered generally ended.[9] The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution.[10] Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon and Descartes.[11] The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Baruch Spinoza, Diderot, Kant, Hume, Rousseau and Adam Smith. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie (Encyclopaedia). Philosophy[edit] Science[edit] Sociology, economics and law[edit] Politics[edit] Religion[edit]

Androstadienone Androstadienone, also known as androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one, is a chemical compound that has been described as having strong pheromone-like activities in humans.[1] It is a metabolite of the sex hormone testosterone: however, androstadienone does not exhibit any known androgenic or anabolic effects. Though it has been reported to significantly affect the mood of heterosexual women and homosexual men, it does not alter behavior overtly,[2] although it may have more subtle effects on attention.[3] Androstadienone is commonly sold in male fragrances, it is purported, to increase sexual attraction. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] A critical review of the evidence for the existence (1) human pheromones and (2) a functional vomeronasal organ (VNO) in humans Romanticism Defining Romanticism[edit] Basic characteristics[edit] Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the starting point of the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist. The importance the Romantics placed on untrammelled feeling is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich that "the artist's feeling is his law".[7] To William Wordsworth poetry should be "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings".[8] In order to truly express these feelings, the content of the art must come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature. However this is particularly in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. The term[edit] The period[edit] Romantic literature[edit]

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