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The Australian gold rush

The Australian gold rush
JCF Johnson, A Game of Euchre, col. wood engraving, Australasian Sketcher Supplement [Melbourne], 25 December, 1876. Image courtesy of the : nla.pic-an8927787. The gold rushes of the nineteenth century and the lives of those who worked the goldfields - known as '' - are etched into our national . There is no doubt that the gold rushes had a huge effect on the Australian economy and our development as a nation. It is also true to say that those heady times had a profound impact on the national psyche. The camaraderie and '' that developed between diggers on the goldfields is still integral to how we - and others - perceive ourselves as Australians. Indeed, mateship and defiance of authority have been central to the way our history has been told. Even today, nothing evokes more widespread national pride than groups of irreverent Aussie 'blokes' beating the English at cricket, or any other sport for that matter! The discovery that changed a nation Gold frenzy A nation transformed Racism Gold Rush Related:  Australia 1788-1901Making a Nation

Australian Gold, History & Culture Info | - Historic Gold Rush Village Mogo South Coast NSW Australia The community, owners and staff of the Original Gold Rush Colony in Mogo (NSW South Coast Australia) have a wealth of information to share. The information has been gathered over time from their own research and experiences initially through the efforts of Bill Mitchell, Corey Peterson, Sam and Martyn Lloyd and Charlie Hyde, building on the base material provided by Ron Prior. As we gave information, so we received anecdotal input from passionate tourists. Many of our guests have had family who lived through this short Caucasian period of Australia's history. This has led to a collation of stories from the wider communities south of Sydney New South Wales - Batemans Bay, Nelligen, Araluen and surrounding South Coast regions and beyond to provide an on-line resource center. This is a collection of fascinating information and bits & pieces covering a wide range of topics including Australian Gold Rush History, 1800s Living Conditions, Gold Information and Australian Aboriginal Culture.

Chinese at the Australian Goldfields Chinese at the Australian Goldfields At the time that news about the Australian goldrush reached China in 1853, the country had been suffering from years of war and famine. In order to raise money for the fare to Australia, a man would take a loan from a local trader, agreeing to make regular repayments. A village in China When the Chinese arrived at the goldfields, they stayed together in large teams with a head man in charge. There was ignorance about Chinese customs and culture, and the Chinese seemed very strange and different to the European diggers. In an attempt to limit the number of Chinese at the goldfields, a law was passed in 1885 that any Chinese person entering Victoria would pay ten pounds tax, and one pound for a protection fee, the right to mine and live in the colony. Some Chinese returned home after the gold rush, but many stayed here. The inside of a Chinese temple

Eureka Stockade The Eureka Flag based on the constellation of the Southern Cross. Image courtesy of the The , which is often referred to as the 'Eureka Stockade', is a key event in the development of Australian democracy and Australian identity, with some people arguing that Australian democracy was born at Eureka' (Clive Evatt). In addition, the principles of mateship, seen to be adapted by the gold diggers, and the term digger' was later adopted by the ANZAC soldiers in World War I. The rebellion came about because the goldfield workers (known as 'diggers') opposed the government miners' licences. The licences were a simple way for the government to tax the diggers. Population of the goldfields The population of the Victorian goldfields peaked in 1858 at 150,000. Between 1851 and 1860, an estimated 300,000 people came to Australian colonies from England and Wales, with another 100,000 from Scotland and 84,000 from Ireland. 1854 - the year of the rebellion The Social Order Notice. The Eureka Stockade

Chinatowns across Australia Chinatowns developed in Australia as a result of the large influx of Chinese migrants, which was driven by a system of indentured labour and then the gold rushes of the 1850s. Hou Wang Temple, Atherton. Image courtesy of the . Chinatowns developed as concentrations within capital cities and thriving rural towns, with businesses, temples, theatres and schools. The businesses in Chinatowns offered accommodation, medicinal herbs, fresh food grown by Chinese market gardeners and groceries. There were also restaurants, noodle houses, tobacconists, butchers, clerks, carpenters and interpreters. Chinese goods, especially tea, silk, vegetables, herbs, ginger and other spices were highly sought after items of trade by non-Chinese people. Over time, many of the early buildings were demolished subject to decay, lost to fire or, in Darwin, bombed in the Second World War. Chinese settlers in Australia Ah Xian, China China Bust 71, 2002. Chinese market gardener Atherton. Roe St Perth Chinatown. Canberra

Australian gold rush The 1850s gold rush attracted many Chinese people to Australia in search of a fortune. In this scene, Chinese and European diggers methodically search for gold using various devices and techniques. When gold was discovered When gold was discovered in Australia, the volume of Chinese immigration significantly increased. The Chinese immigrants referred to the Australian gold fields as 'Xin Jin Shan', or the New Gold Mountain. Gold rush history - Australia's Golden Outback The Western Australian gold rush began with the first discovery of gold in the late 1890s. News of the gold spread as fast as the region’s wildfires and soon gold prospectors were arriving to seek their fortune and set up gold rush towns in the dusty landscapes of the Kalgoorlie, Goldfields and Murchison regions. They came slowly at first, but as the finds grew so too did the population. Lonely clusters of tents and rough bough sheds were soon transformed into booming Western Australian gold rush towns. Grand hotels lined the main streets and bustling town centres soon boasted butchers, bakers, schools and churches. Many of the original townships remain and though the populations are not as huge, the character buildings and museums provide a fascinating glimpse into the wild and colourful spirit of the gold rush era. Take a journey of discovery, starting at the Prospectors and Miners Hall of Fame in Kalgoorlie-Boulder and visiting some of the region’s many museums.

The Overland Telegraph For the early settlers, Australia was a harsh and unforgiving land. Not only was the landscape unfamiliar and threatening, but the sheer vastness of the continent and its distance from everything and everyone meant it was virtually isolated from the rest of the world. News and letters had to travel halfway around the world by horse, ship and —a trip that took up to five months each way. Jack Laver, Bob Carew up a pole of the Overland Telegraph Line, 1921. And it wasn't much easier for communication between cities, towns and settlements within the colony itself. This tyranny of distance, as it has been dubbed by historian , led to the development of one of this country's greatest engineering and technological feats—the Overland Telegraph. But the story of the overland telegraph is as much about the people, politics and challenges involved as it is about the achievement. A grand plan Morse telegraph 1844 Charles Todd, ca.1871. Colonial telegraph 1860 Race for a cross-continent route

The changing face of modern Australia Italian workers at a knitting factory. Image courtesy of the . The hundreds of thousands of people who arrived in Australia after the First World War greatly influenced Australia becoming a modern society. They brought with them skills, commitment to family, education and their own cultural values. The years between the First and Second World Wars saw the emergence of cultural diversity in Australian society that was characterised by a expanded migration of people, especially men from southern Europe, the Adriatic and the Mediterranean. The 1920s and 1930s were hard times with a Depression that saw massive unemployment, poverty and hardship. Australia's involvement in the Allied forces in Europe in the war against Nazi Germany created a compassion for displaced persons in Europe. activities saw an unprecedented engagement of women in jobs that were previously the preserve of men. The Empire and Australia's Imperial Force – a nation of soldiers Hard times in the 1920s and 1930s In Broome,

Federation The Federation Kiosk, Centennial Park, Sydney at the Proclamation of Federation, 1 January 1901. Image courtesy of the. It's hard to imagine in contemporary Australia, but prior to Federation each of the Australian colonies was more like its own country with customs houses, railway gauges and even their own military. It was neither natural nor inevitable that Australia would be federated, in fact it wasn't even a very popular idea. Colonial politicians like Alfred Deakin, Henry Parkes and Edmund Barton waged a long campaign to turn the six colonies of 3.7 million people into a country in its own right. The Father of Federation Henry Parkes. (1815-1896) is often called the 'Father of Federation' for his role as a long-time agitator for the cause. Parkes was five times the Premier of NSW and one of the most prominent men in colonial politics. After a life at the forefront of the Federation movement Henry Parkes died in 1896 without ever seeing his dream realised. The movement gathers momentum

1853 Gold Mining Licence | Australia's migration history timeline | NSW Migration Heritage Centre Era: 1840 - 1900Cultural background: Chinese, EnglishCollection: Powerhouse MuseumTheme:Gold Government Labour Movement Miners Riots Settlement Licence for gold mining, 1853. Courtesy of the Powerhouse Museum Collection Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, Australia. Object Name Gold Mining Licence. Object/Collection Description Licence for gold mining, framed, paper / wood / glass, issued to J McDonnell, printed by John Ferres, Government Printing Office, Victoria, Australia, 1853. In March 1851, Edward Hargraves wrote to the Sydney Morning Herald to announce that he had found payable gold just outside the New South Wales town of Bathurst. Lambing Flat miners’ camp, c.1860s Courtesy State Library of New South Wales With so many people leaving for the gold fields, many businesses found it hard to keep operating. Although there were some remarkable discoveries on the gold fields, few people made their fortune and most drifted back to towns and cities looking for work. Bibliography Websites