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The Australian gold rush

The Australian gold rush
JCF Johnson, A Game of Euchre, col. wood engraving, Australasian Sketcher Supplement [Melbourne], 25 December, 1876. Image courtesy of the : nla.pic-an8927787. The gold rushes of the nineteenth century and the lives of those who worked the goldfields - known as '' - are etched into our national . There is no doubt that the gold rushes had a huge effect on the Australian economy and our development as a nation. It is also true to say that those heady times had a profound impact on the national psyche. The camaraderie and '' that developed between diggers on the goldfields is still integral to how we - and others - perceive ourselves as Australians. Indeed, mateship and defiance of authority have been central to the way our history has been told. Even today, nothing evokes more widespread national pride than groups of irreverent Aussie 'blokes' beating the English at cricket, or any other sport for that matter! The discovery that changed a nation Gold frenzy A nation transformed Racism Gold Rush Related:  Australia 1788-1901Making a Nation

Australian Gold The community, owners and staff of the Original Gold Rush Colony in Mogo (NSW South Coast Australia) have a wealth of information to share. The information has been gathered over time from their own research and experiences initially through the efforts of Bill Mitchell, Corey Peterson, Sam and Martyn Lloyd and Charlie Hyde, building on the base material provided by Ron Prior. As we gave information, so we received anecdotal input from passionate tourists. Many of our guests have had family who lived through this short Caucasian period of Australia's history. This has led to a collation of stories from the wider communities south of Sydney New South Wales - Batemans Bay, Nelligen, Araluen and surrounding South Coast regions and beyond to provide an on-line resource center. This is a collection of fascinating information and bits & pieces covering a wide range of topics including Australian Gold Rush History, 1800s Living Conditions, Gold Information and Australian Aboriginal Culture.

Eureka Stockade The Eureka Flag based on the constellation of the Southern Cross. Image courtesy of the The , which is often referred to as the 'Eureka Stockade', is a key event in the development of Australian democracy and Australian identity, with some people arguing that Australian democracy was born at Eureka' (Clive Evatt). In addition, the principles of mateship, seen to be adapted by the gold diggers, and the term digger' was later adopted by the ANZAC soldiers in World War I. The rebellion came about because the goldfield workers (known as 'diggers') opposed the government miners' licences. The licences were a simple way for the government to tax the diggers. Population of the goldfields The population of the Victorian goldfields peaked in 1858 at 150,000. Between 1851 and 1860, an estimated 300,000 people came to Australian colonies from England and Wales, with another 100,000 from Scotland and 84,000 from Ireland. 1854 - the year of the rebellion The Social Order Notice. The Eureka Stockade

Australian gold rush The 1850s gold rush attracted many Chinese people to Australia in search of a fortune. In this scene, Chinese and European diggers methodically search for gold using various devices and techniques. When gold was discovered When gold was discovered in Australia, the volume of Chinese immigration significantly increased. The Chinese immigrants referred to the Australian gold fields as 'Xin Jin Shan', or the New Gold Mountain. The Overland Telegraph For the early settlers, Australia was a harsh and unforgiving land. Not only was the landscape unfamiliar and threatening, but the sheer vastness of the continent and its distance from everything and everyone meant it was virtually isolated from the rest of the world. News and letters had to travel halfway around the world by horse, ship and —a trip that took up to five months each way. Jack Laver, Bob Carew up a pole of the Overland Telegraph Line, 1921. And it wasn't much easier for communication between cities, towns and settlements within the colony itself. This tyranny of distance, as it has been dubbed by historian , led to the development of one of this country's greatest engineering and technological feats—the Overland Telegraph. But the story of the overland telegraph is as much about the people, politics and challenges involved as it is about the achievement. A grand plan Morse telegraph 1844 Charles Todd, ca.1871. Colonial telegraph 1860 Race for a cross-continent route

Federation The Federation Kiosk, Centennial Park, Sydney at the Proclamation of Federation, 1 January 1901. Image courtesy of the. It's hard to imagine in contemporary Australia, but prior to Federation each of the Australian colonies was more like its own country with customs houses, railway gauges and even their own military. It was neither natural nor inevitable that Australia would be federated, in fact it wasn't even a very popular idea. Colonial politicians like Alfred Deakin, Henry Parkes and Edmund Barton waged a long campaign to turn the six colonies of 3.7 million people into a country in its own right. The Father of Federation Henry Parkes. (1815-1896) is often called the 'Father of Federation' for his role as a long-time agitator for the cause. Parkes was five times the Premier of NSW and one of the most prominent men in colonial politics. After a life at the forefront of the Federation movement Henry Parkes died in 1896 without ever seeing his dream realised. The movement gathers momentum

Australia's pearling industry The pearling industry was a major economic force for over one hundred years in northern Australia and for business interests in the southern capitals from the 1850s onwards. However, alongside the development of the industry were stories of forced and indentured labour, danger and death. The origins of an industry Pearl shell Ornament. Australia's pearling industry began long before Northern Australian coastal dwelling Aborigines harvested the abundant pearl shell from the shallow waters and had a well established trading network for pearl shell. Aborigines also traded with the who harvested beche-de-mer, trepang (sea-slugs), tortoise and pearl shell. When Europeans settled in Australia, they were quick to see the value of the pearl fields. Pearl shell button. Pearl shells obtained from the Torres Strait found a ready market in the clothing industry in the United States and England especially for buttons and buckles. Pearl diving – a dark history Setbacks for the industry Useful links Broome

The changing face of early Australia Millions of people from all over the world have made Australia their home. Their lives and experiences have influenced all aspects of Australian life. In particular, the new arrivals, or immigrants, have contributed significantly to the working life of Australia—from , the , the sugar cane fields, and construction sites through and luggers to factories, , cafés and many other business. A lady holding a small child [Quarantine Station], Tom Gray Collection, 3. Eventually, the arrival of people from diverse societies created a cultural diversity that is now an integral part of Australian society and identity. Arrival at the colonies The of Sydney, Melbourne and Fremantle were the main arrival points for people arriving in the colonies from the early 1800s. The development of the port towns of the far north - Brisbane, Townsville and Cairns, from the mid-1800s owed much to the commercial shipping and trading companies, such as Howard Smith and Burns Philp. North Head Quarantine Station . . .

Afghan cameleers in Australia By the mid-1800s, exploration in Australia was at its peak with expeditions setting out almost monthly. The race to map the continent, locate natural resources or find new places to settle moved away from the coast and further into the inhospitable heart of Australia. It was soon obvious that the traditional horses and wagons used for such expeditions were not suitable in this strange and foreign land. The solution to the problem of finding suitable transport for inland exploration and travel was to bring in camels. Afghan and Decorated Camel, 1901. For a short period of time from the 1860s to the early 1900s, these cameleers and their 'ships of the desert' became the backbone of the Australian economy. The first cameleers In the 1800s, explorers, settlers, ranchers and prospectors sought to unlock the mystery and potential of the vast, inhospitable interior of Australia. Unloading camels at Port Augusta, ca.1920. A 'solution to the problem' Purchase and recruitment The Ghan logo.

Childhood Experiences in Australia 1788-1901 Download lecture: Childhood Experiences in Australia 1788-1901Download pdf of slides This lecture presents an archaeological investigation of European childhood in Australia spanning the years 1788 – 1901. Applying the sociological theory of interpretive reproduction (Corsaro 2005), which posits that childhood is a social construction resulting from collective actions of children with adults and each other, the research focuses on revealing children’s creativity and agency as reflected in the material culture of childhood. Margaretha Vlahos is an archaeology postgraduate student from the University of Queensland. This talk was presented at the conference ‘Telling Tales: Children, Narrative and Image’ conference, part of the Seventh International Conference of the Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past (SSCIP) – in partnership with the Trendall Centre at La Trobe University, Melbourne Library Service and the State Library of Victoria. Like this: Like Loading...

Chinatowns across Australia Chinatowns developed in Australia as a result of the large influx of Chinese migrants, which was driven by a system of indentured labour and then the gold rushes of the 1850s. Hou Wang Temple, Atherton. Image courtesy of the . Chinatowns developed as concentrations within capital cities and thriving rural towns, with businesses, temples, theatres and schools. The businesses in Chinatowns offered accommodation, medicinal herbs, fresh food grown by Chinese market gardeners and groceries. There were also restaurants, noodle houses, tobacconists, butchers, clerks, carpenters and interpreters. Chinese goods, especially tea, silk, vegetables, herbs, ginger and other spices were highly sought after items of trade by non-Chinese people. Over time, many of the early buildings were demolished subject to decay, lost to fire or, in Darwin, bombed in the Second World War. Chinese settlers in Australia Ah Xian, China China Bust 71, 2002. Chinese market gardener Atherton. Roe St Perth Chinatown. Canberra