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Brain Facts and Figures

Brain Facts and Figures
These data were obtained from several textbooks. All numbers are for humans unless otherwise indicated. Brain % brain of total body weight (150 pound human) = 2% Average brain width = 140 mm Average brain length = 167 mm Average brain height = 93 mm Intracranial contents by volume (1,700 ml, 100%): brain = 1,400 ml (80%); blood = 150 ml (10%); cerebrospinal fluid = 150 ml (10%) (from Rengachary, S.S. and Ellenbogen, R.G., editors, Principles of Neurosurgery, Edinburgh: Elsevier Mosby, 2005) Average number of neurons in the brain = 100 billion Number of neurons in octopus brain = 300 million (from How Animals See, S. Average number of glial cells in brain = 10-50 times the number of neurons (New research suggests the neuron-to-glia ratio may be much smaller, closer to 1:1) (For more information about the number of neurons in the brain, see R.W. Total surface area of the cerebral cortex = 2,500 cm2 (2.5 ft2; A. Number of cranial nerves = 12 I- olfactory II- optic III- oculomotor IV- trochlear

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Brain Structures and Their Functions The nervous system is your body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves. Together they control every part of your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test. Nerves reach from your brain to your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord... and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body. Sensory nerves gather information from the environment, send that info to the spinal cord, which then speed the message to the brain. The brain then makes sense of that message and fires off a response.

Decision-Making and Control in the Brain Damage to the brain's frontal lobe is known to impair one's ability to think and make choices. And now scientists say they've pinpointed the different parts of this brain region that preside over reasoning, self-control and decision-making. Researchers say the data could help doctors determine what specific cognitive obstacles their patients might face after a brain injury. For the study, neuroscientists at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) examined 30 years worth of data from the University of Iowa's brain lesion patient registry and mapped brain activity in almost 350 people with lesions in their frontal lobes. They linked these maps with data on how each patient performed in certain cognitive tasks. MRI scans of a human brain show the regions significantly associated with decision-making in blue, and the regions significantly associated with behavioral control in red.

10 reasons why mind mapping software should be the foundation of your personal productivity system Mind mapping software can significantly improve your effectiveness, so much so that you really ought to consider making it a key tool in your personal productivity arsenal. Here are 10 reasons why you should incorporate this technology into your workflow: 1. It’s unbelievably flexible. The number one benefit of mind mapping software, hands down, is this: No other type of program lets you manipulate ideas, knowledge and information with as much freedom and flexibility as mind mapping software. That’s because it encapsulates ideas and knowledge in “containers” that can hold various types of content and data and can be rearranged at will.

Visual Processing: Cortical Pathways (Section 2, Chapter 15 The visual system is unique as much of visual processing occurs outside the brain within the retina of the eye. The previous chapter described how the light-sensitive receptors of the eye convert the image projected onto the retina into spatially distributed neural activity in the first neurons of the visual pathway (i.e., the photoreceptors). Within the retina, the receptors synapse with bipolar and horizontal cells, which establish the basis for brightness and color contrasts. In turn, the bipolar cells (the 2° visual afferent) synapse with retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells, which enhance contrast effects that support form vision and establish the basis for movement detection. The information from the eye is carried by the axons of the retinal ganglion cells (the 3° visual afferent) to the midbrain and diencephalon. This chapter will provide more information about visual pathway organization and the visual processing that occurs within the brain.

Brain Waves The human brain is more complex than your scientists suspect. They are busily mapping where certain functions occur, and how parts of the brain activate in syncronicity. They know that parts of the brain, near the stem, are older than, for instance, the forebrain, and that a human can survive remarkably well with only half a brain, as long as that half is either the right or left, intact. But what your scientists do not know is that beyond the old brain and the new, the subconscious and the conscious, the right and the left halves - there are yet more subdivisions of the human brain.

UCSB scientists discover how the brain encodes memories at a cellular level (Santa Barbara, Calif.) –– Scientists at UC Santa Barbara have made a major discovery in how the brain encodes memories. The finding, published in the December 24 issue of the journal Neuron, could eventually lead to the development of new drugs to aid memory. The team of scientists is the first to uncover a central process in encoding memories that occurs at the level of the synapse, where neurons connect with each other. "When we learn new things, when we store memories, there are a number of things that have to happen," said senior author Kenneth S. Semantic Web I have an idea that I think is very important but I haven’t yet polished to the point where I’m comfortable sharing it. I’m going to share it anyway, unpolished, because I think it’s that useful. So here I am, handing you a dull, gray stone, and I’m saying there’s a diamond inside. Maybe even a dilithium crystal.

Current Biology - Separate Processing of Different Global-Motion Structures in Visual Cortex Is Revealed by fMRI Figure 1 A Schematic Description of the Motion Stimuli (A) The subjects viewed a radial-motion, translation-motion, or random-motion stimulus in 16 s epochs. The global-motion types were changed in a random order every 16 s. (B) The translation-motion display consisted of two sets of global motion.

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