Mapping the entire brain with new and improved Brainbow II technology (Medical Xpress)—Among the many great talks at the recent annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience were three special lectures given sequentially during the evenings. The first described how we might translate the known circuit diagram of the worm, and the range of neural activities it supports, into it's play in a 2D world. The second followed with how we might trace the trickle of information from the larger 3D world, through the more complex theater of the fly brain, and back out again. The third, and most gripping story in the trilogy, was Jeff Lichtman's talk about using his new technology—known as Brainbow II— to turn the wild synaptic jungle into a tame and completely taxonomized arboretum which we can browse at our leisure. A movie of a millimeter-sized worm learning to recognize and wriggle free from a mini-lariat may not be the critics choice. But what a structure it is.
The Chinese Room Argument 1. Overview Work in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has produced computer programs that can beat the world chess champion and defeat the best human players on the television quiz show Jeopardy. AI has also produced programs with which one can converse in natural language, including Apple's Siri. The Human Body - Super Brainy Beans Senses Keeping Healthy Teeth Take a look at your teeth in a mirror. Can you see that they are not all the same?
Neuronal Connections and the Mind - The Connectome In the age of computers and the Internet one of the most appealing theories of how mind is generated from the neurons of the brain is by the computation of large networks of connecting neurons. Olaf Sporns (Resources) coined the term “connectome;” it refers to the mapping of all neuronal connections. There are many large scientific projects underway in this field to try to find out if mapping the connections will lead to information about normal brain function, consciousness, and mental disorders. Computational neuroscience Computational neuroscience (also theoretical neuroscience) is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system. It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology with electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics, and physics. Computational neuroscience is distinct from psychological connectionism and from learning theories of disciplines such as machine learning, neural networks, and computational learning theory in that it emphasizes descriptions of functional and biologically realistic neurons (and neural systems) and their physiology and dynamics. These models capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. History
Brain researchers explain why old habits die hard - MIT News Office Habits help us through the day, eliminating the need to strategize about each tiny step involved in making a frothy latte, driving to work and other complex routines. Bad habits, though, can have a vise grip on both mind and behavior. Notoriously hard to break, they are devilishly easy to resume, as many reformed smokers discover. A new study in the Oct. 20 issue of Nature, led by Ann Graybiel of MIT's McGovern Institute, now shows why. Important neural activity patterns in a specific region of the brain change when habits are formed, change again when habits are broken, but quickly re-emerge when something rekindles an extinguished habit -- routines that originally took great effort to learn.
Elon Musk Says There’s a ‘One in Billions’ Chance Reality Is Not a Simulation Wednesday night, SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk did that thing he does every so often, which is take wild questions from an audience and answer them as if he’s been thinking about them for years, usually because he has. Pick a random quote out of a bag and you can turn Musk’s statements at the Recode Code Conference into a piece of news: He wants to put humans on Mars by 2025, said SpaceX is still on track to test the most powerful rocket in the world this year, said Mars isn’t a “bad choice” for a place to die, wants to relaunch a used Falcon 9 rocket in a few months, said we’re already cyborgs, discussed why a direct democracy would be the best political system for a Mars colony and then went into specifics of how that democracy would work, etc. Depending on the question, the resulting discussions are ones philosophy or engineering students have probably had while they’re flying high on an illicit substance. "There’s a one in billions chance we’re in base reality"
Brain Function, Anatomy & Diagram Much of the brain's physiological task involves receiving information from the rest of the body, interpreting that information, and then guiding the body's response to it. Types of input the brain interprets include odors, light, sounds, and pain. The brain also helps perform vital operations such as breathing, maintaining blood pressure, and releasing hormones (chemical signals that control certain cells and organs). The brain is divided into sections. These sections include the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the brainstem.
Connectome White matter tracts within a human brain, as visualized by MRItractography. A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram". More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system. The production and study of connectomes, known as connectomics, may range in scale from a detailed map of the full set of neurons and synapses within part or all of the nervous system of an organism to a macro scale description of the functional and structural connectivity between all cortical areas and subcortical structures.
[ETUDE SCIENCE] Conscious Brain-to-Brain Communication in Humans Using Non-Invasive Technologies Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction).
Vagus nerve stimulation therapy in epilepsy In this section Introduction About VNS therapyHow VNS therapy works People who may be considered for VNS therapyAbout VNS surgery Benefits of having VNS surgeryRisks of having VNS surgerySide-effects of VNS therapyEpilepsy medicines after VNS surgeryReplacing the generator batteryFurther information Introduction Elon Musk: There's only one AI company that worries me Elon Musk's concerns about the dangers of artificial intelligence have been well publicized, but the SpaceX and Tesla founder says that of all the companies currently working on self-aware computers, there's only one whose efforts actually worry him. Speaking on stage at Recode's Code Conference, Musk was asked by The Verge's own Walt Mossberg whether he was worried specifically about the efforts of big tech players like Google and Facebook currently pivoting to AI research. "I won't name names," Musk said, "but there's only one." Mossberg pressed the question, wondering whether the company that kept the Tesla boss up at night was not one currently preoccupied with developing its own car.
The Blood Typing Game - about blood groups, blood typing and blood transfusions What happens if you get a blood transfusion with the wrong blood type? Even though a patient's own blood type is the first choice for blood transfusions, it's not always available at the blood bank. Try to save some patients' lives and learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game