The British East India Company — the Company that Owned a Nation (or Two) The East India Company is, or rather was, an anomaly without a parallel in the history of the world. It originated from sub-scriptions, trifling in amount, of a few private individuals. It gradually became a commercial body with gigantic resources, and by the force of unforeseen circumstances assumed the form of a sovereign power, while those by whom its affairs were directed continued, in their individual capacities, to be without power or political influence. — Bentley's Miscellany 43 (1858) One of the strangest parts of the history of the British Empire involves that commercial venture generally known as the East India Company, though its original name when founded by royal charter on the very last day of 1600 was the Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. As its name suggests, the company was the enterprise of London businessmen who banded together to make money importing spices from South Asia. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Bibliography
Walter Raleigh Arms of Raleigh family: Gules, five fusils conjoined in bend argent Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though he spent some time in Ireland, in Killua Castle, Clonmellon, County Westmeath, taking part in the suppression of rebellions and participating in the Siege of Smerwick. Later, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose rapidly in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era. Early life Raleigh's family was highly Protestant in religious orientation and had a number of near escapes during the reign of the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I of England. Ireland Later life
The first Europeans coming in Thailand Before 1932 the name of Thailand was Siam. In 2011 we celebrated the 500th anniversary of the first Europeans arrived. Thailand at that time Indeed in 1511 the Portuguese Albuquerque contacted the Siamese court in Goa in India and that Antonio Miranda, who was the first to have a hearing at the court of King Rama II Thibodi (Ayutthaya). The Dutch arrived in 1601 were the first to exchange embassies with the Kingdom of Siam in 1607 during the reign of King Ekathosarot. king Rama Thibodi 3 The British followed the Dutch establishing the "East India Company" in 1612 in Ayutthaya. In 1642 during the reign of King Prasat Thong, they established their power over Malacca and Java so they could control the area and access to the Gulf of Siam. Bishop Pallu receives the title of the pope's apostolic vicar for Annam and Tonkin It was only in 1662 that the French arrived in Siam. Constantin Paulkon During that time, the adventurer Constantine Paulkon arrived in Ayutthaya. Father Tachard
Nevada Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 35th most populous, and the 9th least densely populated of the 50 United States. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where the state's three largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital is Carson City. Nevada is officially known as the "Silver State" due to the importance of silver to its history and economy. The name Nevada is derived from the nearby Sierra Nevada, which means "snow-capped range" in Spanish. Nevada is known for its libertarian laws. Etymology and pronunciation A topographic map of Nevada Nevadans normally pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the /æ/ vowel of "bad". Geography Basin and Range scenery near Rachel. Nevada has 172 mountain summits with 2,000 feet (610 m) of prominence. Climate Vegetation
SIAM AND THE WEST, KINGDOM OF (Western Colonialism) Europeans to trade regularly with, and to settle in, the kingdom of Siam. They sent an envoy to the court of Ayutthaya around 1511, the year of their conquest of Melaka. The Portuguese wanted to ensure that there would continue to be Siamese shipping to their new possession, Siam being a major supplier of rice to that port. By 1516 a treaty had been signed, according the Portuguese the right to trade in Siam, in return for Portuguese sale of European firearms to the Ayutthayan court. Hundreds of Portuguese became mercenaries of the kings of Siam, who in the sixteenth century fought several wars against neighboring states. the seventeenth century was a time of intense commercial and diplomatic activity. people to establish sustained contacts with Siam were the missionaries of the Societe des Missions Etrangeres, who first arrived in 1662. Europeans did not trade directly in Siam again until 1818. a stalemate was reached between Britain and France in this region.
Habeas corpus A writ of habeas corpus (English pronunciation: /ˌheɪbiəs ˈkɔrpəs/; Latin: "you may have the body") is a writ (court order) that requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court. The principle of habeas corpus ensures that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention—that is, detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence. The remedy can be sought by the prisoner or by another person coming to the prisoner's aid. This right originated in the English legal system, and is now available in many nations. It has historically been an important legal instrument safeguarding individual freedom against arbitrary state action. It has been extended to non-police authorities, as in the 1898 Queen's Bench case of Ex Parte Dorothy Hopkins, which has successfully been utilized more recently in India to liberate a woman from a madrasa. Habeas corpus has certain limitations. Etymology Literally the phrase means "you may have the body". Examples Canada
ระบบพระคลังสินค้ากับความมั่งคั่งกรุงศรีอยุธยา: แรงดึงดูดพ่อค้าต่างชาติ โดยพิทยะ ศรีวัฒนสาร สภาพความคับคั่งจอแจของการสัญจรทางเรือที่ตลาดย่านหน้าวัดบางกระจะในแผนที่ ยูเดีย(Iudea)ของ Jan Janszoon Struys (c.1629 - c.1694) นักเดินทางผู้มีชื่อเสียงซึ่งเข้ามาเยือนกรุงศรีอยุธยาระหว่างเดือนมกราคม-มีนาคม ค.ศ.1650 หนังสือของเขาซึ่งตีพิมพ์ในปีค.ศ.1676 ที่กรุงอัมสเตอร์ดัม ชื่อ "Drie aanmerkelijke en seer rampspoedige reysen" มีแผนที่สยามขนาด 19X29 ซ.ม.ปรากฏอยู่ด้วย(ภาพและเรื่องอ้างจากMAPPING IUDEA: A CARTOGRAPHIC EXERCISE by Tricky Vandenburg ใน ขอขอบคุณอย่างยิ่ง) ใบของต้นการบูร(camphor)ใช้ทำสารหอมระเหยลักษณะเป็นผลึกสีขาว(ภาพจาก google.com ขอขอบคุณอย่างยิ่ง) ชะมดเชียง เครื่องหอมสมุนไพรจากสัตว์ป่า(ภาพจากgoogle.com ขอขอบคุณอย่างยิ่ง) ไม้ฝางนอกจากจะใช้ทำสีย้อมผ้าแล้วยังใช้ทำน้ำยาอุทัยได้ด้วย(ภาพจาก google.com ขอขอบคุณอย่างยิ่ง) ไม้กฤษณาใช้ทำน้ำมันหอมระเหยราคาแพง (ภาพจาก google ขอขอบคุณอย่างยิ่ง) ส่วยและภาษีรากฐานอันแข็งแกร่งทางเศรษฐกิจของราชสำนัก
Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard Marshal of the Royal Air Force Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard GCB OM GCVO DSO (3 February 1873 – 10 February 1956) was a British officer who was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force. He has been described as the Father of the Royal Air Force. During his formative years Trenchard struggled academically, failing many examinations and only just succeeding in meeting the minimum standard for commissioned service in the British Army. As a young infantry officer, Trenchard served in India and with the outbreak of the Boer War, he volunteered for service in South Africa. While fighting the Boers, Trenchard was critically wounded and as a result of his injury, he lost a lung, was partially paralysed and returned to Great Britain. After the end of the Boer War, Trenchard saw service in Nigeria where he was involved in efforts to bring the interior under settled British rule and quell inter-tribal violence. Early life Trenchard aged 14 as a militia cadet
FYI: Antonio Pigafetta, First Round-the-World PR Man - BBA Communications AFTER YOU ANTONIO by John M. Reed Public relations, as a field of employment and study in the United States, is generally traced back to the early Twentieth Century, when businessmen found it necessary to respond to attacks by social reformers and muck-rakers of the day. They turned to such early luminaries as George V.S. Every school child knows that Magellan was the first person to circumnavigate the globe. The first circumnavigator was a Basque renegade ship's master named Juan Sebastian del Cano. Don Antonio, né Antonio Pigafetta, was born, circa 1498, to a patrician family in Vicenza, Italy. On September 20, 1519, the five second-hand ships set sail from San Lucar de Barrameda. After valiant effort, Magellan found passage through the straits at the bottom tip of South America and entered the vast ocean he named Pacific. Antonio's personal cargo was much more important. Finally, back in Italy, Antonio wrote several more accounts of the magnificent trip. Was Antonio a success?
Per ardua ad astra "Per Ardua Ad Astra", a 1984 memorial sculpture by Oscar Nemon on University Avenue in Toronto, Canada honouring fallen Canadian airmen and women. The motto carved into the shelter at Stonefall cemetery in Harrogate, which has Air Force graves from many Commonwealth air forces. Origin The first Commanding Officer of the Royal Flying Corps (Military Wing) was Colonel Frederick Sykes. The question of where this motto had come from can be answered by the fact that Yule had read it in a book called The People of the Mist by Sir Henry Rider Haggard. Where Rider Haggard obtained this phrase is still unclear, although it is possible that it originated from the Irish family of Mulvany who had used it as their family motto for hundreds of years and translated it as "Through Struggles to the Stars". The authoritative translation of the motto is just as uncertain as the source. Variants The motto of the Royal Air Force Regiment omits the 'ad astra' part, becoming simply 'per ardua'.
Ferdinand Magellan: the first to go around the world? : Explorers & leaders : Sea & ships fact files : Sea & ships : Explore online Ferdinand Magellan. Repro ID: PU2325 ©National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, LondonColumbus landed in the 'new world' of the Americas in 1492. Explorers coming after him in the 16th century brought the news to Europe that the Pacific Ocean lay beyond the western coast of America. Suddenly people began to understand that they could reach the East by sailing westwards from Europe. Why did they want to get to the East? Europeans wanted silks, gems and spices from the East. Who was Magellan? Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese sailor. When did Magellan sail? He left Spain in 1519 with five ships and about 260 men. Did he find a passage through South America? Magellan found the strait that is now named after him, but only by chance. Why did Magellan name the ocean he entered the 'Pacific'? The ocean was calm and peaceful when Magellan finally entered it. What happened in the Pacific? Magellan and his men suffered terrible hunger. Did Magellan get home safely? How many men returned to Spain?