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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder, also known as bipolar affective disorder (and originally called manic-depressive illness), is a mental disorder characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression.[1][2] The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania depending on the severity or whether there is psychosis. During mania an individual feels or acts abnormally happy, energetic, or irritable.[1] They often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced.[2] During periods of depression there may be crying, poor eye contact with others, and a negative outlook on life.[1] The risk of suicide among those with the disorder is high at greater than 6% over 20 years, while self harm occurs in 30–40%.[1] Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorder and drug misuse are commonly associated.[1] Signs and symptoms Manic episodes Hypomanic episodes Depressive episodes Mixed affective episodes Associated features

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder

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Emotional/Behavioral Disorders Definition Many terms are used to describe emotional, behavioral or mental disorders. Currently, students with such disorders are categorized as having an emotional disturbance, which is defined under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as follows: "...a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school factors. -[Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Section 300.7(c)(4)(i)] Academic characteristics

List of cognitive biases Illustration by John Manoogian III (jm3).[1] Cognitive biases can be organized into four categories: biases that arise from too much information, not enough meaning, the need to act quickly, and the limits of memory. Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior.

Fugue state A fugue state, formally dissociative fugue or psychogenic fugue (DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders 300.13[1]), is a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality. The state is usually short-lived (ranging from hours to days), but can last months or longer. Dissociative fugue usually involves unplanned travel or wandering, and is sometimes accompanied by the establishment of a new identity.

Mood stabilizer A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder. Uses[edit] Examples[edit] The term "mood stabilizer" does not describe a mechanism, but rather an effect. More precise terminology is used to classify these agents. Myocardial infarction Myocardial infarction (from Latin: Infarctus myocardii, MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the medical term for an event commonly known as a heart attack. It happens when blood stops flowing properly to part of the heart and the heart muscle is injured due to not receiving enough oxygen. Usually this is because one of the coronary arteries that supplies blood to the heart develops a blockage due to an unstable buildup of white blood cells, cholesterol and fat. The event is called "acute" if it is sudden and serious. Signs and symptoms[edit] Rough diagram of pain zones in myocardial infarction; dark red: most typical area, light red: other possible areas; view of the chest

Autism Spectrum Disorder What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by: Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts;Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities;Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (typically recognized in the first two years of life); and,Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning. The term “spectrum” refers to the wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of impairment or disability that children with ASD can have. Some children are mildly impaired by their symptoms, while others are severely disabled. The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) no longer includes Asperger’s syndrome; the characteristics of Asperger’s syndrome are included within the broader category of ASD.

Kintsugi Tea bowl repaired with the Kintsugi method Kintsugi (金継ぎ?) (Japanese: golden joinery) or Kintsukuroi (金繕い?) Posttraumatic stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder[note 1] (PTSD) may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, serious injury, or the threat of death.[1] The diagnosis may be given when a group of symptoms, such as disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event, and hyperarousal (high levels of anxiety) continue for more than a month after the traumatic event.[1] Most people having experienced a traumatizing event will not develop PTSD.[2] Women are more likely to experience higher impact events, and are also more likely to develop PTSD than men.[3] Children are less likely to experience PTSD after trauma than adults, especially if they are under ten years of age.[2] War veterans are commonly at risk to PTSD. Classification Posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM iV; the characteristic symptoms are not present before exposure to the violently traumatic event. Causes

Mood disorder English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder.[2] The term was then replaced by mood disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state,[3] whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others.[1] Mood disorders fall into the basic groups of elevated mood, such as mania or hypomania; depressed mood, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) (commonly called clinical depression, unipolar depression, or major depression); and moods which cycle between mania and depression, known as bipolar disorder (BD) (formerly known as manic depression). Classification[edit] Depressive disorders[edit] Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly called major depression, unipolar depression, or clinical depression, wherein a person has one or more major depressive episodes. After a single episode, Major Depressive Disorder (single episode) would be diagnosed.

Arak (drink) Arak, or araq (Arabic: عرق‎), is an Levantine alcoholic spirit (~40–63% Alc. Vol./~80–126 proof) from the anis drinks family. It is a clear, colorless, unsweetened anise-flavored distilled alcoholic drink (also labeled as an Apéritif). Arak is the traditional alcoholic beverage in Lebanon, Iraq,[1][2] Syria,[1][2] Jordan,[2] Palestine, Israel.[2] Turkey and Iran. Fetal alcohol syndrome Symptoms - Diseases and Conditions Fetal alcohol syndrome isn't a single birth defect. It's a cluster of related problems and the most severe of a group of consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. Collectively, the range of disorders is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Fetal alcohol syndrome is a common — yet preventable — cause of mental retardation. Cronyism Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice and principle to meritocracy. Cronyism exists when the appointer and the beneficiary are in social contact. Often, the appointer is inadequate to hold his or her own job or position of authority, and for this reason the appointer appoints individuals who will not try to weaken him or her, or express views contrary to those of the appointer. Politically, "cronyism" is derogatorily used.[1] Etymology[edit]

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