Emotional/Behavioral Disorders Definition Many terms are used to describe emotional, behavioral or mental disorders. Currently, students with such disorders are categorized as having an emotional disturbance, which is defined under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as follows: "...a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school factors. -[Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Section 300.7(c)(4)(i)] Academic characteristics References Meadow, P. Resources Burrello, L.C., & Wright, P.T.
Catatonia Catatonia is a state of neurogenic motor immobility, and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor. It was first described, in 1874, by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum in Die Katatonie oder das Spannungsirresein (Catatonia or Tension Insanity). In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5) catatonia is not recognized as a separate disorder, but is associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia (catatonic type), bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and other mental disorders, as well as drug abuse or overdose (or both). It may also be seen in many medical disorders including infections (such as encephalitis), autoimmune disorders, focal neurologic lesions (including strokes), metabolic disturbances, alcohol withdrawal and abrupt or overly rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal. It can be an adverse reaction to prescribed medication. Clinical features Subtypes
Methylphenidate for Bipolar II disorder - Reviews Page 1 - Drugs What is Methylphenidate? Methylphenidate (Oral) Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant. Methylphenidate is used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy. Methylphenidate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Methylphenidate (Transdermal) Methylphenidate is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). What is the most important information I should know about Methylphenidate? You should not use methylphenidate if you have glaucoma, tics or Tourette's syndrome, or severe anxiety, tension, or agitation. Do not use methylphenidate if you have taken an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. Methylphenidate may be habit forming. Do not use methylphenidate if you have taken an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. Keep track of the amount of patches used from each new package. What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Methylphenidate? FDA pregnancy category C.
Bipolar Disorder - National Institute of Mental Health Introduction: Bipolar Disorder This booklet discusses bipolar disorder in adults. For information on bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, see the NIMH booklet, “Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens: A Parent’s Guide.” What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe. Bipolar disorder often develops in a person's late teens or early adult years. Bipolar disorder is not easy to spot when it starts. What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder? People with bipolar disorder experience unusually intense emotional states that occur in distinct periods called "mood episodes." Extreme changes in energy, activity, sleep, and behavior go along with these changes in mood. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are described below. At the other end of the scale are hypomania and severe mania. Genetics
Khan Academy Autism Spectrum Disorder What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by: Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts;Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities;Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (typically recognized in the first two years of life); and,Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning. The term “spectrum” refers to the wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of impairment or disability that children with ASD can have. Information on ASD can also be found on the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development website and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website . Causes Scientists don't know the exact causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but research suggests that both genes and environment play important roles. Genetic factors Diagnosis
Brief psychotic disorder Brief psychotic disorder is a period of psychosis whose duration is generally shorter, non re-occurring, and not caused by another condition. The disorder is characterized by a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms, which may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, or catatonic behavior. The symptoms must not be caused by schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder or mania in bipolar disorder. They must also not be caused by a drug (such as amphetamines) or medical condition (such as a brain tumor). The term bouffée délirante describes an acute nonaffective and nonschizophrenic psychotic disorder, which is largely similar to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV brief psychotic and schizophreniform disorders. There are three forms of brief psychotic disorder: 1. Frequency References See also
Lexapro Lexapro (generic name escitalopram oxalate) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) sometimes prescribed for the treatment of depression associated with bipolar disorder (manic depression). Found here are resources and information relating to this medication. Lexapro Drug ProfileLexapro - generic escitalopram - is an antidepressant in the SSRI class that is approved to treat major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Here is information about Lexapro including basic information, precautions and warnings, common side effects, and information about Lexapro and pregnancy. Lexapro / Escitalopram Side EffectsCatalogue of side effects for the medication Lexapro - generic Escitalopram - an SSRI antidepressant related to Celexa. Lexapro and Go Go GO! Half a Lexapro Is Better Than NoneAfter switching from Celexa to Lexapro I experienced mixed mania with severe agitation and back pain. Lexapro.comThe official home page for Lexapro from Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Bipolar Disorder Signs & Symptoms: Mania & Bipolar Depression What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) causes serious shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behavior—from the highs of mania on one extreme, to the lows of depression on the other. More than just a fleeting good or bad mood, the cycles of bipolar disorder last for days, weeks, or months. And unlike ordinary mood swings, the mood changes of bipolar disorder are so intense that they interfere with your ability to function. During a manic episode, a person might impulsively quit a job, charge up huge amounts on credit cards, or feel rested after sleeping two hours. The causes of bipolar disorder aren’t completely understood, but it often appears to be hereditary. Myths and Facts About Bipolar Disorder Myth: People with bipolar disorder can’t get better or lead a normal life. Fact: Many people with bipolar disorder have successful careers, happy family lives, and satisfying relationships. Myth: Bipolar disorder only affects mood. Signs and symptoms of mania
Fetal alcohol syndrome Symptoms - Diseases and Conditions Fetal alcohol syndrome isn't a single birth defect. It's a cluster of related problems and the most severe of a group of consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. Collectively, the range of disorders is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Fetal alcohol syndrome is a common — yet preventable — cause of mental retardation. The severity of mental problems varies, with some children experiencing them to a far greater degree than others. Signs of fetal alcohol syndrome may include: The facial features seen with fetal alcohol syndrome may also occur in normal, healthy children. Doctors may use other terms to describe some of the signs of fetal alcohol syndrome. When to see a doctor If you're pregnant and can't stop drinking, ask your obstetrician or other health care provider for help. Because early diagnosis may help reduce the risk of long-term problems for children with FAS, let your child's doctor know if you drank alcohol while you were pregnant. May. 21, 2011 References
Delusional disorder Delusional disorder is an uncommon psychiatric condition in which patients present with delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect. Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis. Non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life; examples include being followed or poisoned. Apart from their delusions, people with delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behaviour does not generally seem odd or bizarre. However, the preoccupation with delusional ideas can be disruptive to their overall lives. For the diagnosis to be made, auditory and visual hallucinations cannot be prominent, though olfactory or tactile hallucinations related to the content of the delusion may be present. Indicators of a delusion The following can indicate a delusion: Features Types
Antidepressants in bipolar disorder: the case for ... [Bipolar Disord. 2003] - PubMed result