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Age of Enlightenment

Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason) is an era from the 1650s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. It was promoted by philosophes and local thinkers in urban coffeehouses, salons and masonic lodges. It challenged the authority of institutions that were deeply rooted in society, such as the Catholic Church; there was much talk of ways to reform society with toleration, science and skepticism. New ideas and beliefs spread around the continent and were fostered by an increase in literacy due to a departure from solely religious texts. Use of the term[edit] The term "Enlightenment" emerged in English in the later part of the 19th century,[2] with particular reference to French philosophy, as the equivalent of the French term 'Lumières' (used first by Dubos in 1733 and already well established by 1751). Time span[edit] Goals[edit]

Federalist Papers Welcome to our Federalist Papers e-text. The Federalist Papers were written and published during the years 1787 and 1788 in several New York State newspapers to persuade New York voters to ratify the proposed constitution. In total, the Federalist Papers consist of 85 essays outlining how this new government would operate and why this type of government was the best choice for the United States of America. All of the essays were signed "PUBLIUS" and the actual authors of some are under dispute, but the general consensus is that Alexander Hamilton wrote 52, James Madison wrote 28, and John Jay contributed the remaining five. The Federalist Papers remain today as an excellent reference for anyone who wants to understand the U.S. Constitution. We have three ways to browse the Federalist Papers. Other important documents of the period: These Federalist Papers Web pages were originally created by Rob Knautz and replace his version hosted online from 1996 to 2000.

Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, alternatively known as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking eastern half continuation and remainder of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire's east and west divided. Nomenclature[edit] History[edit]

Counter-Enlightenment The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th century Enlightenment. The term is usually associated with Isaiah Berlin, who is often credited with coining it, perhaps taking up a passing remark of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who used the term Gegenaufklärung at the end of the 19th century. The first known use of the term 'counter-enlightenment' in English was in 1949. Berlin published widely about the Enlightenment and its enemies and did much to popularise the concept of a Counter-Enlightenment movement that he characterised as relativist, anti-rationalist, vitalist, and organic,[1] and which he associated most closely with German Romanticism. The Counter-Enlightenment movement vs Enlightenment thinkers[edit] In his 1996 article in the American Political Science Review (Vol. 90, No. 2), Arthur M. See also[edit]

How to Read the Constitution: Self-Government and the Jurisprude The argument that original meaning should guide constitutional interpretation is nearly as old as the Constitution itself. Before there were strict constructionists, before there were judicial activists, there were originalists. In those early days, few seriously objected to the notion that the Constitution should be read in accord with its original meaning, though there were plenty of debates over how best to ascertain that original meaning and what exactly was required to be faithful to the Constitution of the founding. The modern originalism debates are different. For judges who wish to exercise the power of judicial review, adherence to the original meaning of the Constitution is the only choice that is justifiable. By the original meaning of the Constitution, I am referring to the meaning that the constitutional text was understood to have at the time it was drafted and ratified. One important point should be clarified early. Why Originalism? Fixed Principles What is a Constitution?

Western Roman Empire The rise of Odoacer of the Foederati to rule over Italy in 476 was popularized by eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon as a demarcating event for the end of the Western Empire and is sometimes used to mark the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Background[edit] As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. Rebellions, uprisings, and political developments[edit] Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. The main enemy in the West was arguably the Germanic tribes behind the rivers Rhine and Danube. The Parthian Empire, in the East, on the other hand, was too remote and powerful to be conquered. Economic stagnation in the West[edit] Crisis of the 3rd century[edit] The organization of the Empire under the Tetrarchy. Tetrarchy[edit] Second division[edit]

Sublime (philosophy) In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual or artistic. The term especially refers to a greatness beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement or imitation. Grosser Mythen, Swiss Alps. British writers, taking the Grand Tour in the 17th and 18th centuries, first used the sublime to describe objects of nature. John Dennis was the first to publish his comments in a journal letter published as Miscellanies in 1693, giving an account of crossing the Alps where, contrary to his prior feelings for the beauty of nature as a "delight that is consistent with reason", the experience of the journey was at once a pleasure to the eye as music is to the ear, but "mingled with Horrours, and sometimes almost with despair".[2] Shaftesbury had made the journey two years prior to Dennis but did not publish his comments until 1709 in the Moralists. Viviano Codazzi: Rendition of St.

American Thinker: A Thank You on Memorial Day A soldier, a small American flag on the shoulder of his jacket, slowly walks through the streets of a once-bustling city now lying in rubble. The still-upright walls, their windows and doors blown out, appear as skeletons framed by the blue sky. He steps carefully around the broken bricks and shattered glass, alert to any noise or movement. The soldier hears a faint stirring and, wheeling around, rifle at the ready, sees a young girl perhaps five or six years of age slowly walking towards him. He offers his hand to her, and, while wary, she senses a genuine kindness in his demeanor. When the time comes for the soldier to depart, the little girl tugs on his sleeve and with tears in her eyes hugs him and kisses him on the cheek. The following day, a sniper's bullet finds its mark, and the same young man so full of hopes and dreams lies dead beneath a splintered oak tree. The country whence this soldier came, the United States of America, is unique in the annals of mankind.

Industrial Revolution Iron and Coal, 1855–60, by William Bell Scott illustrates the central place of coal and iron working in the industrial revolution and the heavy engineering projects they made possible. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools. It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.[1] The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Etymology Textile manufacture Chemicals

S House by moomoo moomoo projected this unusual house located in Wilga, Poland. Desiged for a photographer, the house features a dynamic skin, a curtain that covers the long side of the elevation. The textile elevation reacts for any tiny wind move, creating an unusual space for resting, relaxing and finding inspiration. Via Arch Daily Enjoyed this post? Share it!