Space exploration Saturn V rocket, used for the American manned lunar landing missions The Moon as seen in a digitally processed image from data collected during a spacecraft flyby While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the early 20th century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality. Common rationales for exploring space include advancing scientific research, uniting different nations, ensuring the future survival of humanity and developing military and strategic advantages against other countries. Space exploration has often been used as a proxy competition for geopolitical rivalries such as the Cold War. After the first 20 years of exploration, focus shifted from one-off flights to renewable hardware, such as the Space Shuttle program, and from competition to cooperation as with the International Space Station (ISS). First flights
Commercialization of space History The first commercial use of satellites may have been the Telstar 1 satellite, launched in 1962, which was the first privately sponsored space launch, funded by AT&T and Bell Telephone Laboratories. Telstar 1 was capable of relaying television signals across the Atlantic Ocean, and was the first satellite to transmit live television, telephone, fax, and other data signals. Two years later, the Hughes Aircraft Company developed the Syncom 3 satellite, a geosynchronous communications satellite, leased to the Department of Defense. Between 1960 and 1966, NASA launched a series of early weather satellites known as Television Infrared Observation Satellites (TIROS). Beginning in 1997, Iridium Communications began launching a series of satellites known as the Iridium satellite constellation, which provided the first satellites for direct satellite telephone service. Subscription satellite services Transponder leasing Ground equipment manufacturing
Space law Space law is an area of the law that encompasses national and international law governing activities in outer space. International lawyers have been unable to agree on a uniform definition of the term "outer space", although most lawyers agree that outer space generally begins at the lowest altitude above sea level at which objects can orbit the Earth, approximately 100 km (60 mi). The inception of the field of space law began with the launch of the world's first artificial satellite by the Soviet Union in October 1957. Named Sputnik 1, the satellite was launched as part of the International Geophysical Year. Since that time, space law has evolved and assumed more importance as mankind has increasingly come to use and rely on space-based resources. NASA STS-121 Launch Early developments International treaties Five international treaties have been negotiated and drafted in the COPUOS: International principles and declarations Consensus 1998 ISS agreement
Space Sciences Laboratory Coordinates: The Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL) is an Organized Research Unit of the University of California, Berkeley. It is located in the Berkeley Hills above the university campus. It has developed and continues to develop many projects in the space sciences. Current work SSL developed and maintains the SETI@home project which pioneered the application of distributed computing to the space sciences. It created the related projects Stardust@home and BOINC. It is home to the Space Physics Research Group, which does Plasma physics research. It has developed many satellite missions and serves as a ground station for those missions. It does science education outreach via the Center for Science Education (CSE). History The Laboratory began its operations in January 1960 with the appointment of its first director, Professor Samuel Silver. The space physics program directed by Professor Kinsey A. The NASA Facilities Grant precipitated the construction of SSL's original buildings.
Remote sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to in situ observation. In modern usage, the term generally refers to the use of aerial sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth (both on the surface, and in the atmosphere and oceans) by means of propagated signals (e.g. electromagnetic radiation). It may be split into active remote sensing, when a signal is first emitted from aircraft or satellites) or passive (e.g. sunlight) when information is merely recorded. Overview Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding areas. Reflected sunlight is the most common source of radiation measured by passive sensors. Illustration of Remote Sensing Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data on dangerous or inaccessible areas. Data acquisition techniques Applications of remote sensing data
Theoretical astronomy Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties" In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject. Astronomy focuses on celestial objects, space, and the physical universe as a whole. Observations of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets have formed the basis of timekeeping and navigation. Astronomy is a branch of science, but unlike other sciences, which have Earth-based laboratories in which controlled experiments are performed, astronomy has its labs located in the heavens far beyond the reach, let alone control, of the terrestrial observer. "So how can one be sure that what one sees out there is subject to the same rules and disciplines of science that govern the local laboratory experiments of physics and chemistry?" 
cool stuff Space archaeology NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander In archaeology, space archaeology is the research-based study of various human-made items found in space, their interpretation as clues to the adventures mankind has experienced in space, and their preservation as cultural heritage. It includes launch complexes on Earth, orbital debris, satellites, and objects and structures on other celestial bodies such as Mars. It also includes the applied field of cultural resource which evaluates the significance of space sites and objects in terms of national and international preservation laws. Cultural resource looks at what, how and why these artifacts of our recent history should be preserved for future generations. Cultural heritage Legal matters The complexities and ambiguities of international legal structures to deal with these sites as cultural resources leave them vulnerable to impacts in the near future by many varieties of space travel. Background and history In 2006, Dr. See also
alt 9 planets rhyme Forensic astronomy Forensic astronomy is the use of astronomy, the scientific study of celestial objects, to determine past celestial constellations. This has been used, if relatively rarely, in forensic science (that is, for solving problems of relevance to the legal system) and for resolving historical problems more generally, notably issues in art history. Forensic science As a forensic science in the strict sense of the term, astronomical knowledge can help resolve certain legal questions. In one reported instance, an astronomer testified in court as an expert witness as to whether a newly built house would cast a shadow on another house. More generally, questions about the sun's or moon's placement in the sky at certain times of day or night may be legally relevant, such as for determining the date on which a photograph was made. It has for instance been reported that Abraham Lincoln once successfully defended a legal case by describing the location of the Moon on the night of the offense.
Meteora di Čeljabinsk Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. La meteora di Čeljabinsk è un evento che si è verificato nella mattina del 15 febbraio 2013, nella regione a sud degli Urali, in Russia, alle ore 9:13 locali, UTC+6 (3:13 UTC), quando un meteoroide di circa 15 metri di diametro e una massa di 10.000 tonnellate ha colpito l'atmosfera alla velocità di 54.000 km/h, circa 44 volte la velocità del suono, e si è frantumato sopra la città di Čeljabinsk. Una parte dei frammenti ha colpito il lago Čebarkul', dal quale il 16 ottobre del 2013 è stato ripescato un grosso pezzo di circa 300 kg di peso. Questa animazione, mostra le osservazioni dei satelliti e computer della NASA, sulla traiettoria della meteora e dei suoi detriti nell'impatto attorno all'atmosfera L'Accademia Russa delle Scienze ha stimato che il meteoroide, chiamato KEF-2013, avesse una massa di 10 000 tonnellate e che l'esplosione sia avvenuta ad un'altitudine compresa tra i 30 e 50 km dal suolo.
Sky & Telescope Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following: The articles are intended for the informed lay reader and include detailed discussions of current discoveries, frequently by participating scientists. The magazine is illustrated in full color, with both amateur and professional photography of celestial sights, as well as tables and charts of upcoming celestial events. The magazine played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about telescope making, through the column "Gleanings for ATMs" that ran from 1933 to 1990. See also References External links