Mausoleum of Halicarnassus Scale model of a reconstruction of the Mausoleum, one of many widely differing versions, at Miniatürk, Istanbul This lion is among the few free-standing sculptures from the Mausoleum at the British Museum. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or Tomb of Mausolus (Greek: Μαυσωλείο της Αλικαρνασσού, modern Turkish: Halikarnas Mozolesi) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and Artemisia II of Caria, who was both his wife and his sister. The word mausoleum has now come to be used generically for an above-ground tomb. Conquest Halicarnassus Artemisia and Mausolus spent huge amounts of tax money to embellish the city. In 353 BC, Mausolus died, leaving Artemisia to rule alone. Artemisia lived for only two years after the death of her husband. Construction of the Mausoleum Artemisia spared no expense in building the tomb. The tomb was erected on a hill overlooking the city. History
Lighthouse of Alexandria The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (in Ancient Greek, ὁ Φάρος τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας), was a lofty tower built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom between 280 and 247 BC and between 393 and 450 ft (120 and 137 m) tall. It was one of the tallest man-made structures on Earth for many centuries, and was regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Badly damaged by three earthquakes between 956 and 1323, it then became an abandoned ruin. It was the third longest surviving ancient wonder (after the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the still extant Great Pyramid of Giza) until in 1480 the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. In 1994, French archaeologists discovered some remains of the lighthouse on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour. Origin Three-dimensional reconstruction based on a comprehensive 2006 study Construction Height and description Destruction Significance In books
Siegfried Sassoon Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE, MC (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet, writer, and soldier. Decorated for bravery on the Western Front, he became one of the leading poets of the First World War. His poetry both described the horrors of the trenches, and satirised the patriotic pretensions of those who, in Sassoon's view, were responsible for a jingoism-fuelled war. Sassoon became a focal point for dissent within the armed forces when he made a lone protest against the continuation of the war in his "Soldier's Declaration" of 1917, culminating in his admission to a mental hospital; this resulted in his forming a friendship with Wilfred Owen, who was greatly influenced by him. Early life and education Siegfried Sassoon was born and grew up in the neo-gothic mansion named "Weirleigh" (after its builder, Harrison Weir), in Matfield, Kent, to a Jewish father and an Anglo-Catholic mother. War service The Western Front: Military Cross 2nd Lt.
Great Pyramid of Giza The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu, Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 metres (481 feet), the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. Transparent view of Khufu's pyramid from SE. History and description Materials Casing stones Casing stone
Statue of Zeus at Olympia Coordinates: The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was a giant seated figure, about 13 m (43 ft) tall, made by the Greek sculptor Phidias around 435 BC at the sanctuary of Olympia, Greece, and erected in the Temple of Zeus there. A sculpture of ivory plates and gold panels over a wooden framework, it represented the god Zeus sitting on an elaborate cedarwood throne ornamented with ebony, ivory, gold, and precious stones. It was regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World until its eventual loss and destruction during the 5th century AD. No copy of the statue has ever been found, and details of its form are known only from ancient Greek descriptions and representations on coins. Description The great seated statue as fashioned by Phidias occupied half the width of the aisle of the temple built to house it. Roman Seated Zeus, marble and bronze (restored), following the type established by Phidias (Hermitage Museum) ἦ καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπ' ὀφρύσι νεῦσε Κρονίων See also
Ishtar Gate An aurochs above a flower ribbon; missing tiles are replaced The Ishtar Gate (Arabic: بوابة عشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BC by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II on the north side of the city. It was excavated in the early 20th century and a reconstruction using original bricks is now shown in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. History Dedicated to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, the gate was constructed using glazed brick with alternating rows of bas-relief mušḫuššu (dragons) and aurochs. The roof and doors of the gate were of cedar, according to the dedication plaque. Originally the gate, being part of the Walls of Babylon, was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the world until it was replaced by the Lighthouse of Alexandria; in the 3rd century BC. Excavation and display It was a double gate; the part that is shown in the Pergamon Museum today is the smaller, frontal part. Pergamon Museum, Ishtar gate Gallery
Prince of Wales Prince of Wales (Welsh: Tywysog Cymru) is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent of the British or English monarch. The current Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, who is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations. Roles and responsibilities The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch. Charles, like most previous Princes of Wales, is also Duke of Cornwall and therefore responsible for the duchy of Cornwall, a private estate that funds the activities of the heir to the throne. History The full armorial achievement of Charles, Prince of Wales For most of the post-Roman period, the nation of Wales was divided into several smaller states. Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, however, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283.
Lucy the Elephant Elephant hotel redirects here. For the National Historic Landmark located in Somers, New York, see Elephant Hotel. Lucy the Elephant is a six-story elephant-shaped example of novelty architecture, constructed of wood and tin sheeting in 1881 by James V. Today, Lucy is a tourist attraction. 1800s In 1881, the U.S. Lafferty brought real estate customers up a narrow spiral staircase from within the elephant's body to the howdah, where he could point out real estate parcels available for sale. Lucy's head shape identifies the building as an Asian Elephant, and its tusks as a male. The structure was sold to Anton Gertzen of Philadelphia in 1887 and remained in the Gertzen family until 1970. Lafferty built at least two more elephant-shaped buildings, though neither survives. 1900s Over the years, Lucy had served as a restaurant, business office, cottage, and tavern (the last closed by Prohibition). By the 1960s, Lucy had fallen into disrepair and was scheduled for demolition.
Temple of Artemis Coordinates: This model of the Temple of Artemis, at Miniatürk Park, Istanbul, Turkey, attempts to recreate the probable appearance of the first temple. The first sanctuary (temenos) antedated the Ionic immigration by many years, and dates to the Bronze Age. Callimachus, in his Hymn to Artemis, attributed it to the Amazons. Antipater of Sidon, who compiled the list of the Seven Wonders, describes the finished temple: I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the colossus of the Sun, and the huge labour of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, "Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand". Location and history Modern archaeology cannot confirm Callimachus's Amazons, but Pausanias's account of the site's antiquity seems well-founded.