background preloader

List of memory biases

List of memory biases
In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory. There are many different types of memory biases, including: See also[edit] [edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Schacter, Daniel L. (1999). "The Seven Sins of Memory: Insights From Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience". References[edit] Greenwald, A. (1980).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_memory_biases

Related:  memory as a mental processCognitive Bias, Distortions & Logical FallaciesNew MentatThe Singularity

Flashbulb memory A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid 'snapshot' of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard.[1] The term "Flashbulb memory" suggests the surprise, indiscriminate illumination, detail, and brevity of a photograph; however flashbulb memories are only somewhat indiscriminate and are far from complete.[1] Evidence has shown that although people are highly confident in their memories, the details of the memories can be forgotten.[2] Flashbulb memories are one type of autobiographical memory. Some researchers believe that there is reason to distinguish flashbulb memories from other types of autobiographical memory because they rely on elements of personal importance, consequentiality, emotion, and surprise.[1][3][4] Others believe that ordinary memories can also be accurate and long lasting if they are highly distinctive, personally significant,[5][6] or repeatedly rehearsed.[7]

Taxonomy of the Logical Fallacies How to Use the Taxonomy | Main Menu Acknowledgments: Thanks to David Goodey and Kent Gustavsson for pointing out missing links. Prosopagnosia Research - About Prosopagnosia What is prosopagnosia? Prosopagnosia (also known as 'face blindness') refers to a severe deficit in recognizing familiar people from their face. While some people report a very selective impairment that only influences the recognition of faces, others find the deficit extends to the recognition of other stimuli, such as objects, cars, or animals. Many people also report deficits in other aspects of face processing, such as judging age or gender, recognising certain emotional expressions, or following the direction of a person's eye gaze. Finally, a substantial proportion of prosopagnosics report navigational difficulties.

List of fallacies A fallacy is incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness. Fallacies are either formal fallacies or informal fallacies. Formal fallacies[edit] Main article: Formal fallacy

Short-term memory Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time. The duration of short-term memory (when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented) is believed to be in the order of seconds. A commonly cited capacity is 7 ± 2 elements. In contrast, long-term memory can hold an indefinite amount of information. Short-term memory should be distinguished from working memory, which refers to structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information (see details below). Existence of a separate store[edit]

A List Of Fallacious Arguments attacking the person instead of attacking his argument. For example, "Von Daniken's books about ancient astronauts are worthless because he is a convicted forger and embezzler." (Which is true, but that's not why they're worthless.) Another example is this syllogism, which alludes to Alan Turing's homosexuality: Turing thinks machines think.

Prosopagnosia Animation of the fusiform area, the area damaged in prosopagnosia. Prosopagnosia /ˌprɒsəpæɡˈnoʊʒə/ (Greek: "prosopon" = "face", "agnosia" = "not knowing"), also called face blindness,[1] is a cognitive disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decision making) remain intact. The term originally referred to a condition following acute brain damage (acquired prosopagnosia), but a congenital or developmental form of the disorder also exists, which may affect up to 2.5% of the population.[2] The specific brain area usually associated with prosopagnosia is the fusiform gyrus,[3] which activates specifically in response to faces.

Technological Singularity The technological singularity is the hypothesis that accelerating progress in technologies will cause a runaway effect wherein artificial intelligence will exceed human intellectual capacity and control, thus radically changing civilization in an event called the singularity.[1] Because the capabilities of such an intelligence may be impossible for a human to comprehend, the technological singularity is an occurrence beyond which events may become unpredictable, unfavorable, or even unfathomable.[2] The first use of the term "singularity" in this context was by mathematician John von Neumann. Proponents of the singularity typically postulate an "intelligence explosion",[5][6] where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds, that might occur very quickly and might not stop until the agent's cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human. Basic concepts Superintelligence Non-AI singularity

Eyewitness memory Encoding[edit] During the Event:[edit] Challenges of Identifying Faces[edit] People struggle to identify faces in person or from photos, a difficulty arising from the encoding of faces.[6] When participants were given a basic memory test from an array of photos or a lineup, they struggled to accurately identify the images and had low recognition. This finding provides a starting point for estimating the accuracy of eyewitnesses' identification of others involved in a traumatic event. The other-race effect (i.e. the own-race bias, cross-race effect, other-ethnicity effect, same-race advantage) is one factor thought to impact the accuracy of facial recognition.

7 Stupid Thinking Errors You Probably Make The brain isn’t a flawless piece of machinery. Although it is powerful and comes in an easy to carry container, it has it’s weaknesses. A field in psychology which studies these errors, known as biases. Do you suffer from face blindness? Seven signs and symptoms of prosopagnosia If you read my previous post on the role of cognitive assessment in identifying uniqueness, you’ll know that I’ve worked with a lot of folks who suffer from severe difficulties recognizing faces: a condition known as prosopagnosia or face blindness. I get a lot of emails from people who take the face recognition tests on TestMyBrain.org and want to know what sorts of experiences might indicate that someone has face blindness. If you suspect you have face blindness, you may find you identify with some or many of the experiences below. 7 signs and symptoms of face blindness / prosopagnosia The list was compiled with the help of the Yahoo Faceblind group. You have failed to recognize a close friend or family member, especially when you weren’t expecting to see them.Failing to recognize someone in your immediately family, in particular, is something that people with normal face recognition rarely (if ever) experience.

Moore's law Moore's law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. The law is named after Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore, who described the trend in his 1965 paper.[1][2][3] His prediction has proven to be accurate, in part because the law is now used in the semiconductor industry to guide long-term planning and to set targets for research and development.[4] The capabilities of many digital electronic devices are strongly linked to Moore's law: processing speed, memory capacity, sensors and even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras.[5] All of these are improving at roughly exponential rates as well.

Spaced repetition In the Leitner system, correctly answered cards are advanced to the next, less frequent box, while incorrectly answered cards return to the first box for more aggressive review and repetition. Spaced repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect. Alternative names include spaced rehearsal, expanding rehearsal, graduated intervals, repetition spacing, repetition scheduling, spaced retrieval and expanded retrieval.[1]

Related: