Rhétorique Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Au-delà de cette définition générale, la rhétorique a connu au cours de son histoire une tension entre deux conceptions antagonistes, la rhétorique comme art de la persuasion et la rhétorique comme art de l'éloquence. La rhétorique grecque, telle qu'elle fut pratiquée par les sophistes et codifiée par Aristote, se préoccupait principalement de persuader. Problématiques de la rhétorique[modifier | modifier le code] Polémiques autour d'une définition[modifier | modifier le code] Marc Fumaroli comme Joëlle Gardes-Tamine ont étudié les conceptions de la rhétorique au cours des siècles et relèvent que celles-ci peuvent se rattacher à deux traditions philosophiques : la définition d'origine sophistique, selon laquelle la rhétorique doit persuader. Les recherches contemporaines ont disséqué la rhétorique et les interprétations se sont multipliées. Trois notions centrales : le logos, le pathos et l'êthos[modifier | modifier le code] Pour J.
Fallacies Dr. Michael C. Labossiere, the author of a Macintosh tutorial named Fallacy Tutorial Pro 3.0, has kindly agreed to allow the text of his work to appear on the Nizkor site, as a Nizkor Feature. It remains © Copyright 1995 Michael C. Labossiere, with distribution restrictions -- please see our copyright notice. Other sites that list and explain fallacies include: Constructing a Logical Argument Description of Fallacies In order to understand what a fallacy is, one must understand what an argument is. There are two main types of arguments: deductive and inductive. A fallacy is, very generally, an error in reasoning.
Fallacy A fallacy is the use of poor, or invalid, reasoning for the construction of an argument. A fallacious argument may be deceptive by appearing to be better than it really is. Some fallacies are committed intentionally to manipulate or persuade by deception, while others are committed unintentionally due to carelessness or ignorance. Fallacies are commonly divided into "formal" and "informal". A formal fallacy can be expressed neatly in a standard system of logic, such as propositional logic, while an informal fallacy originates in an error in reasoning other than an improper logical form. Arguments containing informal fallacies may be formally valid, but still fallacious. Formal fallacy Main article: Formal fallacy A formal fallacy is a common error of thinking that can neatly be expressed in standard system of logic. An argument that is formally fallacious is rendered invalid due to a flaw in its logical structure. Common examples Aristotle's Fallacies
Rhetoric Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments. The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical", from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker", related to ῥῆμα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying", and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erō), "say, speak". Uses of rhetoric Scope of rhetoric Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed.
Logical Fallacies Fallacies A fallacy is a kind of error in reasoning. The list of fallacies contains 209 names of the most common fallacies, and it provides brief explanations and examples of each of them. Fallacies should not be persuasive, but they often are. Fallacies may be created unintentionally, or they may be created intentionally in order to deceive other people. An informal fallacy is fallacious because of both its form and its content. The discussion that precedes the long alphabetical list of fallacies begins with an account of the ways in which the term "fallacy" is vague. Table of Contents 1. The first known systematic study of fallacies was due to Aristotle in his De Sophisticis Elenchis (Sophistical Refutations), an appendix to the Topics. The more frequent the error within public discussion and debate the more likely it is to have a name. The term "fallacy" is not a precise term. Real arguments are often embedded within a very long discussion. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fallacy labels have their use. 6. Heap
La Dialectique éristique Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Définition[modifier | modifier le code] « La dialectique éristique est l'art de la controverse. » Cet art repose sur la distinction entre la vérité objective d'une proposition et l'apparence de vérité que cette proposition peut prendre aux yeux des disputeurs et des auditeurs. Causes et fonctions de la dialectique[modifier | modifier le code] Si les hommes étaient honnêtes, il n'y aurait pas de dialectique. la malhonnêteté ;la vanité ;le fait de parler avant de réfléchir ;l'obstination dans l'erreur. Une autre cause est que l'expérience enseigne que lorsque nos arguments en faveur d'une thèse sont réfutés, il pourra toujours se trouver un nouvel argument qui nous donnera finalement raison. Le résultat de cet ensemble est que tout homme veut que sa thèse paraisse vraie, même (et surtout) quand il sait qu'elle est fausse. En conséquence, les moyens de cet art relèvent de la ruse et de l'adresse ; chacun en est pourvu, quoique de manière inégale.
Top 10 Thinking Traps Exposed Our minds set up many traps for us. Unless we’re aware of them, these traps can seriously hinder our ability to think rationally, leading us to bad reasoning and making stupid decisions. Features of our minds that are meant to help us may, eventually, get us into trouble. Here are the first 5 of the most harmful of these traps and how to avoid each one of them. 1. “Is the population of Turkey greater than 35 million? Lesson: Your starting point can heavily bias your thinking: initial impressions, ideas, estimates or data “anchor” subsequent thoughts. This trap is particularly dangerous as it’s deliberately used in many occasions, such as by experienced salesmen, who will show you a higher-priced item first, “anchoring” that price in your mind, for example. What can you do about it? Always view a problem from different perspectives. 2. In one experiment a group of people were randomly given one of two gifts — half received a decorated mug, the other half a large Swiss chocolate bar. 3. 4.
Intellectio The Art of Being Right The Art of Being Right: 38 Ways to Win an Argument (1831) (Eristische Dialektik: Die Kunst, Recht zu Behalten) is an acidulous and sarcastic treatise written by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer in sarcastic deadpan. In it, Schopenhauer examines a total of thirty-eight methods of showing up one's opponent in a debate. He introduces his essay with the idea that philosophers have concentrated in ample measure on the rules of logic, but have not (especially since the time of Immanuel Kant) engaged with the darker art of the dialectic, of controversy. Whereas the purpose of logic is classically said to be a method of arriving at the truth, dialectic, says Schopenhauer, "...on the other hand, would treat of the intercourse between two rational beings who, because they are rational, ought to think in common, but who, as soon as they cease to agree like two clocks keeping exactly the same time, create a disputation, or intellectual contest." Publication A. Synopsis