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Game theory

Game theory
Game theory is the study of strategic decision making. Specifically, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers."[1] An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory.[2] Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science, and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant or participants. Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of decision science, including both humans and non-humans (e.g. computers, animals). Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Representation of games[edit] Extensive form[edit] [edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_theory

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Nash equilibrium In game theory, the Nash equilibrium is a solution concept of a non-cooperative game involving two or more players, in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only their own strategy.[1] If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing strategies while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices and the corresponding payoffs constitutes a Nash equilibrium. The reality of the Nash equilibrium of a game can be tested using experimental economics method. Stated simply, Amy and Will are in Nash equilibrium if Amy is making the best decision she can, taking into account Will's decision while Will's decision remains unchanged, and Will is making the best decision he can, taking into account Amy's decision while Amy's decision remains unchanged. Applications[edit] History[edit] The Nash equilibrium was named after John Forbes Nash, Jr.

To Test a Powerful Computer, Play an Ancient Game DEEP BLUE's recent trouncing of Garry Kasparov sent shock waves through the Western world. In much of the Orient, however, the news that a computer had beaten a chess champion was likely to have been met with a yawn. While there are avid chess players in Japan, China, Korea and throughout the East, far more popular is the deceptively simple game of Go, in which black and white pieces called stones are used to form intricate, interlocking patterns that sprawl across the board. So subtle and beautiful is this ancient game that, to hear aficionados describe it, Go is to chess what Asian martial arts like aikido are to a boxing match. And, Go fans proudly note, a computer has not come close to mastering what remains a uniquely human game.

List of confidence tricks This list of confidence tricks and scams should not be considered complete, but covers the most common examples. Confidence tricks and scams are difficult to classify, because they change often and often contain elements of more than one type. Throughout this list, the perpetrator of the confidence trick is called the “con artist” or simply “artist”, and the intended victim is the “mark”. Get-rich-quick schemes[edit] Behavioral dynamics and influence in networked coloring and consensus Author Affiliations Edited by Brian Skyrms, University of California, Irvine, CA, and approved July 16, 2010 (received for review February 3, 2010) A correction has been published

Out of the Ordinary - Orlando Magazine - June 2011 - Orlando, FL There is more to do for excitement in the Orlando area than stand in lines to ride roller coasters at the theme parks. For example, did you know you can hang glide or go on a safari here? No kidding. Collective intentionality Collective intentionality demonstrated in a human formation. In philosophy, collective intentionality characterizes the phenomenon that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together. Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of stairs or dancing a tango. This phenomenon is approached from both psychological and normative perspectives, among others.

Top Ten Reasons To Play Go 1. Go is the simplest of all games. When we play go, we try to surround territory and to avoid being surrounded. No muss, no fuss, no thought-up fancy rules. Behavioral experiments on biased voting in networks Author Affiliations Edited by Ronald L. Graham, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, and approved December 5, 2008 (received for review August 19, 2008) Abstract Tiny AVR Programmer Hookup Guide Favorited Favorite 2 Introduction Arduino is awesome. The boards are solid, the programming language and IDE are easy, and the community is awesome. But for a lot of electronics projects, an Arduino is overkill.

Self-confirming equilibrium Consistent self-confirming equilibrium is a refinement of self-confirming equilibrium that further requires that each player correctly predicts play at all information sets that can be reached when the player's opponents, but not the player herself, deviate from their equilibrium strategies. Consistent self-confirming equilibrium is motivated by learning models in which players are occasionally matched with "crazy" opponents, so that even if they stick to their equilibrium strategy themselves, they eventually learn the distribution of play at all information sets that can be reached if their opponents deviate.

Go Infinitesimals at Sensei In combinatorial game theory (CGT) infinitesimals are games of temperature zero where the whole point is to get the last move. (The winner always moves to a score of 0, and so does not win on points.) The simplest infinitesimal is {0|0}, called STAR (*). Each player can play to a position worth 0. The Argumentative Theory "Reasoning was not designed to pursue the truth. Reasoning was designed by evolution to help us win arguments. That's why they call it The Argumentative Theory of Reasoning. So, as they put it, "The evidence reviewed here shows not only that reasoning falls quite short of reliably delivering rational beliefs and rational decisions.

Routage - Wikipedia, l'encyclopédie libre Routing is the process of selecting best paths in a network. In the past, the term routing was also used to mean forwarding network traffic among networks. However this latter function is much better described as simply forwarding. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network (circuit switching), electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology. In case of overlapping/equal routes, the following elements are considered in order to decide which routes get installed into the routing table (sorted by priority):

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