Game theory Game theory is the study of strategic decision making. Specifically, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers." An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science, and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant or participants. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. This theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. Representation of games Most cooperative games are presented in the characteristic function form, while the extensive and the normal forms are used to define noncooperative games. Extensive form 
CRInfo - Nash equilibrium In game theory, the Nash equilibrium is a solution concept of a non-cooperative game involving two or more players, in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only their own strategy. If each player has chosen a strategy and no player can benefit by changing strategies while the other players keep theirs unchanged, then the current set of strategy choices and the corresponding payoffs constitutes a Nash equilibrium. The reality of the Nash equilibrium of a game can be tested using experimental economics method. Stated simply, Amy and Will are in Nash equilibrium if Amy is making the best decision she can, taking into account Will's decision while Will's decision remains unchanged, and Will is making the best decision he can, taking into account Amy's decision while Amy's decision remains unchanged. Applications History The Nash equilibrium was named after John Forbes Nash, Jr. Let .
Peacemaker Violence Prevention Lesson Plans and Education K-12 The PeaceMakers curriculum is a proven-effective K-12 public school-based program developed by the FreeWay Project in 1996. It has been field-tested in hundreds of Missouri classrooms. The curriculum is based on the concept that violence begins with attitudes of mind, progresses through angry speech, and results in hostile actions. It uses dozens of interactive games and activities to teach students to speak courteously and treat others politely, with dignity and respect . . . the same way they would like to be spoken to and treated. PeaceMakers curriculum uses fresh lesson plans and challenging learning activities to teach three fundamental principles: 1. Be sure you know the truth before you speak; control what you say and how you say it; do not criticize or condemn anyone personally. 2. 3. The curriculum is user-friendly. Click here to view a sample activity (Anger) Click here for order form or you may call in your orders toll-free:
Collective intentionality Collective intentionality demonstrated in a human formation. In philosophy, collective intentionality characterizes the phenomenon that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together. Examples include two individuals carrying a heavy table up a flight of stairs or dancing a tango. This phenomenon is approached from both psychological and normative perspectives, among others. Prominent philosophers working in the psychological manner are Raimo Tuomela, Kaarlo Miller, John R. Searle, and Michael E. Raimo Tuomela and Kaarlo Miller Contemporary philosophical discussion of collective intentionality was initiated by Raimo Tuomela and Kaarlo Miller's “We-Intentions”. In this paper, Tuomela and Miller assert three conditions necessary for a collective intention, highlighting the importance of beliefs among the agents of the group. A member (A) of a collective (G) we-intends to do a group action (X) if and only if: 1) (A) intends to do his or her part of X John Searle
The Peace Wheel - Culture There are many ways each and every one of us can be part of the peace movement. You don't need to make radical life changes in order to affect change in the world. Look at the following eight pathways, which one speaks to you? Governance/Law/Security Imagine that everyone in the world, the Earth and all its inhabitants and land masses, are protected in a positive, loving manner. Writing a letter or e-mail to an elected official to support positive legislature and government practices.Participating in a march or celebration for peace or other positive cause.Voting in elections.Education/Media Imagine education and literacy for all. Calling a local news station to cover a positive and "feel good" story. Imagine businesses striving to benefit the world and its inhabitants as a whole, not just its shareholders. Imagine people taking care of their bodies and relationships as they would a brand-new child - with love, peace, and tolerance.
Game Theory Game theory is a tool that can help explain and address social problems. Since games often reflect or share characteristics with real situations -- especially competitive or cooperative situations -- they can suggest strategies for dealing with such circumstances. Just as we may be able to understand the strategy of players in a particular game, we may also be able to predict how people, political factions, or states will behave in a given situation. Just as people generally try to win games, people also try to "win" or achieve their interests or goals in competitive situations. However, both in games and in the real world, we generally follow a set of rules to do this. What is Game Theory? Game theory provides analytical tools for examining strategic interactions among two or more participants. Games used to simulate real-life situations typically include five elements: This and other games illustrate the potential for cooperation to produce mutually beneficial outcomes. The U.S.
Network of Spiritual Progressives — NSP members and leaders believe the progressive world needs a spiritual political movement. We use the word “spiritual” to include all those whose deepest values lead them to challenge the ethos of selfishness and mater