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A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation

A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation
Classics in the History of Psychology An internet resource developed byChristopher D. GreenYork University, Toronto, OntarioISSN 1492-3713 (Return to Classics index) A Theory of Human Motivation A. Originally Published in Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Posted August 2000 [p. 370] I. In a previous paper (13) various propositions were presented which would have to be included in any theory of human motivation that could lay claim to being definitive. 1. The present paper is an attempt to formulate a positive theory of motivation which will satisfy these theoretical demands and at the same time conform to the known facts, clinical and observational as well as experimental. It is far easier to perceive and to criticize the aspects in motivation theory than to remedy them. The 'physiological' needs. -- The needs that are usually taken as the starting point for motivation theory are the so-called physiological drives. Undoubtedly these physiological needs are the most pre-potent of all needs. Related:  Thesis - Exploration of ValueSciences cognitives

Fundamental human needs Human Needs and Human-scale Development,[1] developed by Manfred Max-Neef and others (Antonio Elizalde and Martin Hopenhayn), are seen as ontological (stemming from the condition of being human), are few, finite and classifiable (as distinct from the conventional notion of conventional economic "wants" that are infinite and insatiable).[2] They are also constant through all human cultures and across historical time periods. What changes over time and between cultures is the strategies by which these needs are satisfied. Human needs can be understood as a system - i.e. they are interrelated and interactive. In this system, there is no hierarchy of needs (apart from the basic need for subsistence or survival) as postulated by Western psychologists such as Maslow, rather, simultaneity, complementarity and trade-offs are features of the process of needs satisfaction. Classification of needs[edit] Max-Neef classifies the fundamental human needs as: Types of satisfiers[edit] Research[edit]

Étayage La notion d'étayage renvoie à la théorie de l'américain Jérome Bruner et à l'intervention de l'adulte dans l'apprentissage de l'enfant. L’étayage, lié au concept de "zone proximale de développement"1 , est défini comme "l’ensemble des interactions d’assistance de l’adulte permettant à l’enfant d’apprendre à organiser ses conduites afin de pouvoir résoudre seul un problème qu’il ne savait pas résoudre au départ."2 J. Bruner reconnaît six fonctions de l’étayage caractérisant ce soutien temporaire de l’activité de l’enfant par l’adulte : 1. 2.

Viktor Frankl on the Human Search for Meaning by Maria Popova “Live as if you were living already for the second time and as if you had acted the first time as wrongly as you are about to act now!” Celebrated Austrian psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl, born on March 26, 1905, remains best-known for his indispensable 1946 psychological memoir Man’s Search for Meaning (public library) — a meditation on what the gruesome experience of Auschwitz taught him about the primary purpose of life: the quest for meaning, which sustained those who survived. For Frankl, meaning came from three possible sources: purposeful work, love, and courage in the face of difficulty. In examining the “intensification of inner life” that helped prisoners stay alive, he considers the transcendental power of love: Love goes very far beyond the physical person of the beloved. Frankl illustrates this with a stirring example of how his feelings for his wife — who was eventually killed in the camps — gave him a sense of meaning: Donating = Loving

Children with no shoes on 'do better in classroom', major study finds | Education News Children who learn with no shoes on are more likely to behave better and obtain good grades than peers with footwear, a decade-long study has revealed. Researchers at the University of Bournemouth found that pupils who leave their shoes outside the classroom are more likely to arrive to school earlier, leave later and read more widely – ultimately resulting in better academic achievement overall. From observing thousands of children from 25 countries over ten years, academics say they want to encourage the practice to be adopted in UK primary and secondary schools. There are already a number of schools in England where the policy has been implemented, following on from Scandinavian habits, where the practice is considered normal. As well as visiting schools in New Zealand and Australia for the project, researchers studied children’s attainment at a school in west London after the habit was introduced, analysing the pupils’ academic results all the way up through to university. Reuse content

Engel's law According to Engel's law, the share of income spent on food decreases, even as total food expenditure rises Engel's law is an observation in economics stating that as income rises, the proportion of income spent on food falls, even if actual expenditure on food rises. In other words, the income elasticity of demand of food is between 0 and 1. The law was named after the statistician Ernst Engel (1821–1896). Engel's law doesn't imply that food spending remains unchanged as income increases: It suggests that consumers increase their expenditures for food products (in % terms) less than their increases in income.[1][2] One application of this statistic is treating it as a reflection of the living standard of a country. The interaction between Engel's law, technological progress and the process of structural change is crucial for explaining long term economic growth as suggested by Leon,[3] and Pasinetti.[4] See also[edit] Engel curve References[edit] Jump up ^ Engel, Ernst (1857).

Congrès international « Les sciences cognitives dans la salle de classe » | sciences cognitives Congrès international « Les sciences cognitives dans la salle de classe » Les vidéos du Congrès international « Les sciences cognitives dans la salle de classe » 28 et 29 mars 2019 – Palais de l’UNESCO Conseil scientifique de l’Education Nationale La recherche sur les mécanismes cognitifs et cérébraux des apprentissages a récemment produit des résultats majeurs. Les avancées des sciences cognitives pourraient-elles susciter de nouvelles pédagogies qui permettent à chaque enfant de tirer pleinement parti de ses possibilités intellectuelles et affectives ? Visionner les vidéos : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L’équipe Apprendre et Former avec les sciences cognitives Recherche Les derniers articles 10 min pour découvrir les sciences cognitives de l’apprentissage Utilisez les flèches haut/bas pour augmenter ou diminuer le volume. Les catégorie d’article

Corbett -- What is Existentialism? Bob Corbett March 1985 Existentialism. A difficult term to define and an odd movement. Odd because most thinkers whom the intellectual world categorizes as existentialists are people who deny they are that. And, two of the people whom nearly everyone points to as important to the movement, Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche, are both too early in time to be in the group, thus are usually called "precursorers," but studied and treated as members of the group. Major figures like Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger and Albert Camus all flatly deny they are in the movement (at least at times they did), yet everyone says they are central. Secondly, the term is very difficult, if not totally impossible to define. However, I can define certain characterists that most Existentialists (and precursors to Existentialism) seem to share: Another way of doing it is much simpler. In response to a question about the above: If: I am a person serious about my acts. Then: Bob Corbett

School Belonging Consquences of Feeling a Sense of Belonging The term school belonging refers to students' subjective perception of being accepted and respected in their particular school setting. Some researchers have also examined the parallel perception in relation to specific classes; typically using the term class belonging. Baumeister and Leary (1995) have proposed that all people have an innate need to belong to social groups and to form positive interpersonal relationships with others. The fact that different researchers have examined similar psychological constructs using different terms can make it difficult to synthesize the findings of studies related to students' sense of belonging. Consquences of Feeling a Sense of Belonging Researchers interested in students' sense of belonging have examined the perception of subjective membership and acceptance at both the classroom and more general school level, although the latter is more common. Factors that Contribute to the Sense of Belonging

Energy hierarchy The Energy Hierarchy with the most favoured options at the top The Energy Hierarchy is a classification of energy options, prioritised to assist progress towards a more sustainable energy system. It is a similar approach to the waste hierarchy for minimising resource depletion, and adopts a parallel sequence. The highest priorities cover the prevention of unnecessary energy usage both through eliminating waste and improving energy efficiency. The sustainable production of energy resources is the next priority. Depletive and waste-producing energy generation options are the lowest priority. For an energy system to be sustainable: the resources applied to producing the energy must be capable of lasting indefinitely; energy conversion should produce no harmful by-products, including net emissions, nor wastes which cannot be fully recycled; and it must be capable of meeting reasonable energy demands. Energy saving[edit] Many countries have agencies to encourage energy saving.[3][4]

Wiki-TEDia : Wiki sur l'approche cognitive de l'enseignement et de l'apprentissage Présentation de Wiki-TEDia Bienvenue dans Wiki-TEDia, un site consacré à l'approche cognitive de l'enseignement et de l'apprentissage. Quels sont les objectifs de Wiki-TEDia, qui peut y contribuer, comment l'utiliser et y contribuer, quelles sont les règles à respecter ? Que vous soyez étudiant(e) ou non, vous trouverez dans cette section des réponses à ces questions. [Lire la suite] Approche cognitive L'approche cognitive qui forme le cadre conceptuel de Wiki-TEDia s'inscrit dans la perspective scientifique de l'étude de la cognition et de ses relations avec l'apprentissage et l'enseignement élaborée par les sciences cognitives. [Lire la suite] Banque de stratégies pédagogiques [Lire la suite] Actualités Cette section vous informe des actualités de Wiki-TEDia. [Lire la suite] Communauté Cette section contient la liste de tous les contributeurs à Wiki-TEDia et les liens vers leurs pages personnelles. [Lire la suite]

They're Made out of Meat by Terry Bisson "So ... what does the thinking?" "You're not understanding, are you? You're refusing to deal with what I'm telling you. The brain does the thinking. The meat." "Thinking meat! "Yes, thinking meat! "Omigod. "Thank you. "Omigod. "First it wants to talk to us. "We're supposed to talk to meat." "That's the idea. "They actually do talk, then. "Oh, yes. "I thought you just told me they used radio." "They do, but what do you think is on the radio? "Omigod. "Officially or unofficially?" "Both." "Officially, we are required to contact, welcome and log in any and all sentient races or multibeings in this quadrant of the Universe, without prejudice, fear or favor. "I was hoping you would say that." "It seems harsh, but there is a limit. "I agree one hundred percent. "Just one. "So we just pretend there's no one home in the Universe." "That's it." "Cruel. "They'll be considered crackpots if they do. "A dream to meat! "And we marked the entire sector unoccupied." "Good. "They always come around." the end

Leonard Jimmie Savage Leonard Jimmie Savage (born Leonard Ogashevitz; 20 November 1917 – 1 November 1971) was an American mathematician and statistician. Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman said Savage was "one of the few people I have met whom I would unhesitatingly call a genius."[1] He graduated from the University of Michigan and later worked at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, the University of Chicago, the University of Michigan, Yale University, and the Statistical Research Group at Columbia University. His most noted work was the 1954 book Foundations of Statistics, in which he put forward a theory of subjective and personal probability and statistics which forms one of the strands underlying Bayesian statistics and has applications to game theory. During World War II, Savage served as chief "statistical" assistant to John von Neumann, the mathematician credited with describing the principles upon which electronic computers should be based.[2] See also[edit]

Taxonomie de Bloom Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Bloom. La roue de la taxonomie de Bloom. La taxonomie de Bloom est un modèle pédagogique proposant une classification des niveaux d'acquisition des connaissances[1]. Benjamin Bloom, bien qu'il n'en soit pas le seul créateur (34 universitaires américains participent aux conférences de 1949 à 1953), est souvent reconnu comme le « père » de cet outil[2],[3]. Description[modifier | modifier le code] Composition[modifier | modifier le code] La taxonomie des objectifs éducationnels selon Bloom. Elle peut être résumée en six niveaux hiérarchiques[5]. Note: Dans la liste suivante, traduite de l'anglais[6], certains verbes peuvent se recouper par le sens, le lecteur est invité à consulter des ouvrages de références pour s'assurer du sens exact des verbes. Révision[modifier | modifier le code] Ainsi, en 2001, une taxonomie révisée de Bloom a été proposée par plusieurs auteurs dont Lorin W. Annexes[modifier | modifier le code]

Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th-century philosophy, especially existentialism and postmodernism. Kierkegaard was a 19th-century Danish philosopher who has been called the "Father of Existentialism".[1] His philosophy also influenced the development of existential psychology.[2] Kierkegaard criticized aspects of the philosophical systems that were brought on by philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel before him and the Danish Hegelians. He was also indirectly influenced by the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.[3] He measured himself against the model of philosophy which he found in Socrates, which aims to draw one's attention not to explanatory systems, but rather to the issue of how one exists.[4] One of Kierkegaard's recurrent themes is the importance of subjectivity, which has to do with the way people relate themselves to (objective) truths. Note on pseudonyms[edit] Themes in his philosophy[edit] Alienation[edit] Death[edit]

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