Environmental virtue ethics Environmental virtue ethics (EVE) is, as the name suggests, a way of approaching environmental ethics through the lens of virtue ethics. It is paradoxically both a very new and a relatively old or established approach. It is old or established because, as Louke Van Wensveen points out, almost all environmental literature employs virtue language. It is new because it is only recently that this tendency to use virtue-laden language has been taken up explicitly and addressed through the lens of philosophical virtue ethics. Early interest in applying virtue theory to environmental problems can be found in disparate articles in academic and environmental journals, such as Thomas Hill's "Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments Environmental virtue ethicists take inspiration for a variety of schools of virtue ethics and from diverse backgrounds in environmental ethics. Some Environmental Virtue Ethicists (alphabetically) References Further reading
Ryukyuan religion The Ryukyuan religion is the indigenous belief system of the Ryukyu Islands. While specific legends and traditions may vary slightly from place to place and island to island, the Ryukyuan religion is generally characterized by ancestor worship (more accurately termed "ancestor respect") and the respecting of relationships between the living, the dead, and the gods and spirits of the natural world. Some of its beliefs, such as those concerning genius loci spirits and many other beings classified between gods and humans, are indicative of its ancient animistic roots, as is its concern with mabui (マブイ), or life essence. Over time, Ryukyuan religious practice has been influenced by Chinese religions (Taoism, Confucianism, and folk beliefs), Buddhism, Japanese Shinto, and (to some extent) Christianity. Family-centered worship Ryukyuan religion, with its focus on demonstrating respect of and reverence toward ancestors, is naturally based in the family home. Buchidan Hinukan
Anarchy In Your Head » Archive » The Slave Test Are you a slave? Recently I wrote about how governments manufacture and evoke powerful symbols to essentially brainwash us and keep us obedient. I used an analogy of similar tactics in the past to efficiently maintain the obedience of household slaves. I have a friend who claims my language is far too strong. He says I overuse words like “violence” and “slave” to artificially infuse my arguments with emotion when I’m talking about governments. I can’t really recall his exact argument but I think it amounted to “Nuh uh!”. The slave test is very simple and fair. So let’s consider what it really means to be a slave. An important part of the slave test is to avoid engaging in any aggressive behavior that might actually justify violent intervention. Bearing that in mind, the slave test is incredibly simple. Stay tuned!
Stoicism School of Hellenistic Greek philosophy Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC. Stoicism is a philosophy of personal ethics informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. According to its teachings, as social beings, the path to eudaimonia (happiness) for humans is found in accepting the moment as it presents itself, by not allowing oneself to be controlled by the desire for pleasure or fear of pain, by using one's mind to understand the world and to do one's part in nature's plan, and by working together and treating others fairly and justly. Stoicism flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD, and among its adherents was Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Name Stoicism was originally known as ‘Zenonism’, after the founder Zeno of Citium. Sometimes Stoicism is therefore referred to as just ‘The Stoa’, or the philosophy of ‘The Porch’. Basic tenets History
Yin and yang In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin-yang (simplified Chinese: 阴阳; traditional Chinese: 陰陽; pinyin: yīnyáng), which is often called "yin and yang", is used to describe how opposite or contrary forces are interconnected and interdependent in the natural world; and, how they give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. Many natural dualities (such as light and dark, high and low, hot and cold, fire and water, life and death, male and female, sun and moon, and so on) are thought of as physical manifestations of the yin-yang concept. The concept lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine, and a central principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise, such as baguazhang, taijiquan (t'ai chi), qigong (Chi Kung), and I Ching. Nature Toponymy Classically, when used in place names, yang refers to the "sunny side." I Ching
Tibetan Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan, Kalmykia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim). It is the state religion of Bhutan. It is also practiced in Mongolia and parts of Russia (Kalmykia, Buryatia, and Tuva) and Northeast China. Religious texts and commentaries are contained in the Tibetan Buddhist canon such that Tibetan is a spiritual language of these areas. The Tibetan diaspora has spread Tibetan Buddhism to many Western countries, where the tradition has gained popularity. Among its prominent exponents is the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The number of its adherents is estimated to be between ten and twenty million. Buddhahood General methods of practice Transmission and realization Devotion to a guru Skepticism
Golden mean (philosophy) To the Greek mentality, it was an attribute of beauty. Both ancients and moderns believed that there is a close association in mathematics between beauty and truth. The poet John Keats, in his Ode on a Grecian Urn, put it this way: "Beauty is truth, truth beauty," -- that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know. The Greeks believed there to be three "ingredients" to beauty: symmetry, proportion, and harmony. In Chinese philosophy, a similar concept, Doctrine of the Mean, was propounded by Confucius. Another early elaboration is the Doric saying carved on the front of the temple at Delphi: "Nothing in Excess" ("Meden Agan"). Socrates teaches that a man "must know how to choose the mean and avoid the extremes on either side, as far as possible." In education, Socrates asks us to consider the effect of either an exclusive devotion to gymnastics or an exclusive devotion to music. In the Eudemian Ethics, Aristotle writes on the virtues. St. Jump up ^ Lynn M.
Japanese mythology Japanese myths, as generally recognized in the mainstream today, are based on the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki, and some complementary books. The Kojiki, or "Record of Ancient Matters", is the oldest surviving account of Japan's myths, legends and history. The Shintōshū describes the origins of Japanese deities from a Buddhist perspective, while the Hotsuma Tsutae records a substantially different version of the mythology. One notable feature of Japanese mythology is its explanation of the origin of the imperial family which has been used historically to assign godhood to the imperial line. The Japanese title of the Emperor of Japan, tennō (天皇), means "heavenly sovereign". Note: Japanese is not transliterated consistently across all sources, see: #Spelling of proper nouns Creation myth In the Japanese creation myth, the first deities which came into existence, appearing at the time of the creation of the universe, are collectively called Kotoamatsukami. Kuniumi and Kamiumi
Meditation Meditation is a practice in which an individual trains the mind or induces a mode of consciousness, either to realize some benefit or as an end in itself. The term meditation refers to a broad variety of practices (much like the term sports) that includes techniques designed to promote relaxation, build internal energy or life force (qi, ki, prana, etc.) and develop compassion, love, patience, generosity and forgiveness. A particularly ambitious form of meditation aims at effortlessly sustained single-pointed concentration single-pointed analysis, meant to enable its practitioner to enjoy an indestructible sense of well-being while engaging in any life activity. Meditation may involve generating an emotional state for the purpose of analyzing that state—such as anger, hatred, etc. Etymology The English meditation is derived from the Latin meditatio, from a verb meditari, meaning "to think, contemplate, devise, ponder". History Man Meditating in a Garden Setting
Value (personal and cultural) Values can be defined as broad preference concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be. "Equal rights for all", "Excellence deserves admiration", and "People should be treated with respect and dignity" are representative of values. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior. According to Morris Massey, values form during three significant periods: imprint period - from birth to 7 yearsmodelling period - from 8 to 13 yearssocialization period - from 13 to 21 years Rokeach, M. (1973). Over time the public expression of personal values that groups of people find important in their day-to-day lives, lay the foundations of law, custom and tradition. Personal values exist in relation to cultural values, either in agreement with or divergence from prevailing norms. Wyatt Woodsmall points out that "'Criteria' are used to refer to 'the standards on which an evaluation is based'."
Ritsuryō Ritsuryō defines both a criminal code (律, Ritsu?) and an administrative code (令, Ryō?). During the late Asuka period (late 6th century – 710) and Nara period (710 – 794), the imperial court, trying to replicate China's rigorous political system from the Tang Dynasty, created and enforced some collections of Ritsuryō. Over the course of centuries, the ritsuryō state produced more and more information which was carefully archived; however, with the passage of time in the Heian period, ritsuryō institutions evolved into a political and cultural system without feedback. In 645, the Taika reforms were the first signs of implementation of the system. Major re-statements of Ritsuryō included the following: Main achievements Government and administration In the later half of the seventh century, the Kokugunri system (国郡里制, kokugunri-sei?) Provinces (国, kuni? In 715 CE, the Gōri system (郷里制, gōri-sei?) Provinces (国, kuni? This system was abandoned in 740 CE. Court musicians
Value system A value system is a set of consistent ethic values (more specifically the personal and cultural values) and measures[clarification needed] used for the purpose of ethical or ideological integrity. A well defined value system is a moral code. Personal and communal One or more people can hold a value system. A 'personal' value system is held by and applied to one individual only.A communal' or cultural value system is held by and applied to a community/group/society. Corporate value systems Fred Wenstøp and Arild Myrmel have proposed a structure for corporate value systems that consists of three value categories. Consistency As a member of a society, group or community, an individual can hold both a personal value system and a communal value system at the same time. A value system in its own right is internally consistent when its values do not contradict each other andits exceptions are or could be abstract enough to be used in all situations andconsistently applied.
Yōkai Ukiyo-e print of yōkai, by Aotoshi Matsui Japanese folklorists and historians use yōkai as "supernatural or unaccountable phenomena to their informants". In the Edo period, many artists, such as Toriyama Sekien, created yōkai inspired by folklore or their own ideas, and in the present, several yōkai created by them (e.g. Types There are a wide variety of yōkai in Japanese folklore. Animals Many indigenous Japanese animals are thought to have magical qualities. Oni Tengu A goblin from Japanese mythology that has several supernatural powers and skills in martial arts, the tengu were originally extremely dangerous demons and enemies of Buddhism. Tsukumogami Tsukumogami are an entire class of yōkai and obake, comprising ordinary household items that have come to life on the one-hundredth anniversary of their birthday. Human transformations Ukiyo-e print of yōkai, by Kawanabe Kyōsai Other Some yōkai are extremely specific in their habits, for instance: