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Confucianism

Confucianism
Historically, cultures and countries strongly influenced by Confucianism include mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore. In the 20th century, Confucianism’s influence has been greatly reduced.[7] More recently, there have been talks of a "Confucian Revival" in the academia and the scholarly community.[8] Names and terminology Strictly speaking, there is no term in Chinese which directly corresponds to "Confucianism". In the Chinese language, the character rú 儒 meaning "scholar," is generally used both in the past and the present to refer to things related to Confucianism. The word ru in ancient China has diverse meanings. Three of these use rú. Rújiào and Kǒngjiào contain the Chinese character jiào, the noun "teach", used in such as terms as "education", or "educator". Rúxué contains xué, "study". The Five Confucian Classics and the Confucian vision Central doctrines Rite

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Political economy In the late 19th century, the term economics came to replace political economy, coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890.[1] Earlier, William Stanley Jevons, a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated economics for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science."[2][3] Taoism Taoist rite at the Qingyanggong (Bronze Ram Temple) in Chengdu, Sichuan. Taoism, or Daoism, is a philosophical, ethical, and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as Dao). The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists.

Romance of the Three Kingdoms Romance of the Three Kingdoms, attributed to Luo Guanzhong a 14th century writer, and first published in the Ming dynasty, is a historical novel set amidst the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms era of Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280 AD. The story (part historical, part legend, and part myth) romanticises and dramatises the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han Dynasty or restore it. While the novel follows hundreds of characters, the focus is mainly on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han Dynasty, and would eventually form the three states of Cao Wei, Shu Han, and Eastern Wu.

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Shinto Shinto priest and priestess. Shinto (神道, Shintō?), also kami-no-michi,[note 1] is the indigenous religion of Japan and the people of Japan.[2] It is defined as an action-centered religion,[3] focused on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.[4] Founded in 660 BC according to Japanese mythology,[5] Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology.[6] Shinto today is a term that applies to the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods (kami),[7] suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals, and applies as well to various sectarian organizations. According to Inoue (2003):

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Folk religion Folk religion consists of ethnic or regional religious customs under the umbrella of a religion, but outside of official doctrine and practices.[1] Folk religion has been defined as "the totality of all those views and practices of religion that exist among the people apart from and alongside the strictly theological and liturgical forms of the official religion."[2] Learning from Lin Hao Yao Ming with Lin Hao during the Olympics opening ceremony. (Photo by Cameron Spencer/Getty Images) When Chinese flag bearer and basketball phenom Yao Ming walked through the National Stadium during the opening ceremony of the Olympics, there was so much commotion where I was that I neglected to find out more about the little boy was that he was walking with.

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