Subculture In sociology, and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong. The term subculture has become deprecated among some researchers, who prefer the term co-culture, in order to avoid the connotations of inferiority associated with the "sub-" prefix. While exact definitions vary, the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture." Definition often negative relations to work (as 'idle', 'parasitic', at play or at leisure, etc.) Identifying subcultures The study of subcultures often consists of the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible affectations by members of subcultures, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture. Subcultures' relationships with mainstream culture
Popular Culture -- HISTORICAL ANALYSIS Historical analysis is less a separate analytical framework or approach than it is an element that should be present in any analysis of popular culture. Observing and analyzing changes over time is essential to understanding why a contemporary text is the way it is. We cannot understand our present without understanding our past. Ad Flip. Advertising Age magazine. Baseball Cards, 1887–1914. Edison Motion Pictures. Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850-1920. Film and History. Lyrics World. New Deal Network. Nineteen Thirties Project. Nuke Pop. Old-Time Radio. Origins of American Animation. Psychedelic Sixties. Red Scare, 1918–21. TV in the 1950s. Ad Access. AdCritic.com. Classic Advertisements Gallery. [Few topics on popular culture can be adequately researched on the web alone. Documentary on the evolution of the potrayal of blacks in television. Classic study of how advertising techniques have shaped the American electoral process. Color Adjustment. Classic Commercials.
The Simpsons The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with the producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after members of his own family, substituting Bart for his own name. Production Development When producer James L. The Simpson family first appeared as shorts in The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. Executive producers and showrunners Matt Groening and James L. Writing Part of the writing staff of The Simpsons in 1992. At the end of 2007 the writers of The Simpsons went on strike together with the other members of the Writers Guild of America, East. Voice actors The Simpsons has six main cast members: Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria and Harry Shearer. In addition to the main cast, Pamela Hayden, Tress MacNeille, Marcia Wallace, Maggie Roswell, and Russi Taylor voice supporting characters.
Counterculture A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. Prominent examples of countercultures in Europe and North America include Romanticism (1790–1840), Bohemianism (1850–1910), the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation (1944–1964), and perhaps most prominently, the counterculture of the 1960s (1964–1974), usually associated with the hippie subculture. Definition and characteristics Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to "counterculture". "Mainstream" culture is of course also difficult to define, and in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture may or may not be explicitly political. Typically, a "fringe culture" expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms.
Genres: Pop Culture We cannot attribute any purity of political expression to popular culture, although we can locate its power to identify ideas and desires that are relatively opposed, alongside those that are clearly complicit, to the official culture. -- Andrew Ross, No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture We weren't philosophers, we were perverts. --Howard Stern, Private Parts Popular culture has been defined as everything from "common culture," to "folk culture," to "mass culture." It would be impossible to do an exhaustive (or even a not-so-exhaustive) survey of all the work being done in and on popular culture, so we have included only representative examples of both. General The Media History Project Promoting the study of media from petroglyphs to pixels. Film Society For Cinema Studies An academic organization devoted to the study of film. Television TV Link Huge and well-organized index of links relating to television (and some film). Popular Fiction Authors Journals, Magazines, and Publications
MTV Generation The MTV Generation refers to youth of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, a time when many were influenced by the MTV television channel. The term is sometimes used synonymously with Generation X. History The origin of the phrase has been attributed to the MTV Network itself "to describe the teenagers that dominate their ratings". MTV broadcast a documentary titled MTV Generation in 1991. "Much has been written about the so-called "baby buster" generation--the fairly anonymous group of 20ish young adults struggling to separate themselves from the shadow of the baby boomers ... In 1991, author Douglas Coupland said of the label: "MTV would like to have us believe that everyone in their 20s is the MTV Generation. References
Banksy Banksy is an anonymous England-based street artist, vandal, political activist, and film director. His satirical street art and subversive epigrams combine dark humour with graffiti executed in a distinctive stenciling technique. His works of political and social commentary have been featured on streets, walls, and bridges of cities throughout the world. Banksy's work grew out of the Bristol underground scene, which involved collaborations between artists and musicians. Banksy says that he was inspired by 3D, a graffiti artist who later became a founding member of the English musical group Massive Attack. Banksy displays his art on publicly visible surfaces such as walls and self-built physical prop pieces. Personal life and disputed identity He does all this and he stays anonymous. Brad Pitt In 1994, Banksy checked into a New York hotel using the name "Robin", and in June 2017, DJ Goldie referred to Banksy as "Rob". Career Early career (1990–2001) Banksy Dismaland
Slavoj Žižek Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Slavoj Žižek Philosophe occidental Époque contemporaine Slavoj Žižek (prononciation : /slaˈvɔj ʒiˈʒɛk/), né le 21 mars 1949 à Ljubljana, en Slovénie, est un philosophe slovène de tradition continentale. Formé en Slovénie et en France, il est chercheur en 2012 à l'Institut de sociologie de l'université de Ljubljana et est régulièrement invité dans des universités étrangères, particulièrement aux États-Unis (Columbia, Princeton, New School for Social Research, New York et Michigan). Il est connu pour son utilisation des travaux de Jacques Lacan sous l'angle de la culture populaire ainsi que pour ses analyses de Hegel. Personnalité des mouvements alternatifs slovènes, il s'est présenté en 1990 comme candidat du parti Démocratie libérale slovène (Liberalna Demokracija Slovenije, centriste) à la première élection présidentielle libre qui a précédé l'indépendance de son pays en 1991. Vie et œuvre[modifier | modifier le code] Thèse de doctorat
MTV Unplugged MTV Unplugged is a TV series showcasing many popular musical artists usually playing acoustic instruments. The show has received the George Foster Peabody Award and 3 Primetime Emmy nominations among many accolades. Unplugged The term Unplugged has come to refer to music that would usually be played on amplified instruments (such as an electric guitar or synthesizer) but is rendered instead on instruments that are not electronically amplified, for example acoustic guitar or traditional piano, although a microphone is still used. The word became incorporated into the title of a popular MTV series that began in the 1989/1990 US TV season, MTV Unplugged, on which musicians performed acoustic or "unplugged" versions of their familiar electric repertoire. Inspiration for MTV Unplugged The phenomenon of rock stars re-creating their hits in an acoustic manner was thus well established by the early 1980s though the word "unplugged" had not yet been applied to the concept.
Expressionism Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. Origin of the term In 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke (the Bridge) in the city of Dresden. "View of Toledo" by El Greco, 1595/1610 has been indicated to have a particularly striking resemblance to 20th-century expressionism. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon  and German philosopher Walter Benjamin. According to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that "Expressionism doesn't shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. In other arts
Popular culture studies Popular culture studies is the academic discipline studying popular culture from a critical theory perspective. It is generally considered as a combination of communication studies and cultural studies. The first department to offer Popular Culture bachelor and master degrees is the Bowling Green State University Department of Popular Culture which was founded by Ray B. Browne. Following the work of the Frankfurt School, popular culture has come to be taken more seriously as a terrain of academic inquiry and has also helped to change the outlooks of more established disciplines. Traditional theories of popular culture The theory of mass society As Alan Swingewood points out in The Myth of Mass Culture, the aristocratic theory of mass society is to be linked to the moral crisis caused by the weakening of traditional centers of authority such as family and religion. The theory of culture industry The theory of progressive evolution
Cultural icon Apple pie, baseball, and the flag grouped together are a cliché of American cultural icons A cultural icon is an artifact that is recognised by members of a culture or sub-culture as representing some aspect of cultural identity. Cultural icons vary widely, and may be visual, audio, an object, a person or group of people, etc. In the media, many items of popular culture have been called "iconic" despite their lack of durability. Some commentators believe that the word is overused or misused. Types A subset of cultural icons are national icons. A web-based survey was set up in 2006 allowing the public to nominate their ideas for national icons of England and the results reflect the range of different types of icon associated with an English view of English culture. Big Ben (the nickname for the bell, but widely recognised as St. Matryoshka dolls are seen internationally as cultural icons of Russia. Use in popular media See also References Bibliography
Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality." Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself and/or an idea/concept. Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. Founding of the movement Surrealist Manifesto Expansion