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Atmosphere of the Moon. At sunrise and sunset many Apollo crews saw glows and light rays.[1] This Apollo 17 sketch depicts the mysterious twilight rays.

Atmosphere of the Moon

For most practical purposes, the Moon is considered to be surrounded by vacuum. The elevated presence of atomic and molecular particles in its vicinity (compared to interplanetary medium), referred to as 'lunar atmosphere' for scientific objectives, is negligible in comparison with the gaseous envelopes surrounding Earth and most planets of the Solar system—less than one hundred trillionth (10−14) of Earth's atmospheric density at sea level. Otherwise, the Moon is considered not to have an atmosphere because it cannot absorb measurable quantities of radiation, does not appear layered or self-circulating, and requires constant replenishment due to the high rate at which its atmosphere is lost to space. Sources[edit] Losses[edit] Gases can either: Composition[edit] The Moon may also have a tenuous "atmosphere" of electrostatically-levitated dust. See also[edit] Inferior and superior planets.

In the 16th century, the terms were modified by Copernicus, who rejected Ptolemy's geocentric model, to distinguish a planet's orbit's size in relation to the Earth's.[2] The terms are sometimes used more generally: for instance, the Earth is an inferior planet as seen from Mars.

Inferior and superior planets

This classification is different from the terms inner and outer planet, which designate those planets which lie inside the asteroid belt and those that lie outside it, respectively. "Inferior planet" is also different from minor planet or dwarf planet. Colonization of Venus. Mars ocean hypothesis. An artist's impression of ancient Mars and its oceans based on geological data The blue region of low topography in the Martian northern hemisphere is hypothesized to be the site of a primordial ocean of liquid water.[1] History of observational evidence[edit]

Mars ocean hypothesis

Javelin argument. The javelin argument is an ancient logical argument in support of the cosmological idea that space, or the universe, must be infinite: As to space, I need but ask you, how can that be bounded?

Javelin argument

For whatever bounds, it that thing must itself be bounded likewise; and to this bounding thing there must be a bound again, and so on for ever and ever throughout all immensity. Suppose, however, for a moment, all existing space to be bounded, and that a man runs forward to the uttermost borders, and stands upon the last verge of things, and then hurls forward a winged javelin,— suppose you that the dart, when hurled by the vivid force, shall take its way to the point the darter aimed at, or that something will take its stand in the path of its flight, and arrest it? For one or other of these things must happen. There is a dilemma here that you never can escape from.[1] This argument was used to support the Epicurean thesis about the universe.

Garrett Reisman. Garrett Erin Reisman (born February 10, 1968) is an American engineer and former NASA astronaut.

Garrett Reisman

He was a backup crew member for Expedition 15 and joined Expedition 16 aboard the International Space Station for a short time before becoming a member of Expedition 17. He returned to Earth on June 14, 2008 on board STS-124 on Space Shuttle Discovery. Stranded: Náufragos. Stranded is a 2001 film about a fictional first manned mission to Mars.

Stranded: Náufragos

It stars Vincent Gallo and Maria de Medeiros, and was directed by Spanish filmmaker and actress María Lidón (credited in the English version of the movie as "Luna"), with screenplay by Spanish science fiction author Juan Miguel Aguilera. Lidón won the "Grand Prize of European Fantasy Film in Silver", and Gallo and de Medeiros were named best actors at the 2002 Fantafestival in Rome.[2] Plot[edit] The film is set in 2020 and begins as the Ares spacecraft enters orbit around Mars.

Andre Vishniac commands an international crew of seven astronauts. It will take 26 months for Lowell to send a rescue ship from Earth, but the stranded landing crew have supplies for less than a year and need to find ways to extend the life support system. The landing crew tries to find ways to save electrical power, but even draconian measures will only extend the life of the generator to fourteen months. Cast[edit] Filming locations[edit]

Scientific research on the International Space Station. ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter, STS-116 mission specialist, works with the Passive Observatories for Experimental Microbial Systems in Micro-G (POEMS) payload in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) inside the Destiny laboratory.

Scientific research on the International Space Station

Scientific Research on the International Space Station is a collection of experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present in low Earth orbit. The primary fields of research include human research, space medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and meteorology.[1][2][3] The 2005 NASA Authorization Act designated the American segment of the International Space Station as a national laboratory with the goal of increasing the use of the ISS by other federal agencies and the private sector.[4] Research on the ISS improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body.

Subjects currently under study include muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. Aliens (film) Aliens' action-adventure tone was in contrast to the horror motifs of the original Alien. Following the success of The Terminator (1984), which helped establish Cameron as a major action director,[5] 20th Century Fox greenlit Aliens with a budget of approximately $18 million. It was filmed in England at Pinewood Studios and at a decommissioned power plant in Acton, London. Aliens grossed $86 million at the U.S. box office during its 1986 theatrical release and $131 million worldwide.[6] The movie was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including a Best Actress nomination for Sigourney Weaver. It won in the categories of Sound Effects Editing and Visual Effects. It won eight Saturn Awards, including Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actress for Weaver and Best Direction and Best Writing for Cameron.

Alien (film) Meanwhile on the Nostromo, Warrant Officer Ripley determines that the transmission is actually some type of warning rather than a distress signal.

Alien (film)

In the alien ship, Kane discovers a chamber containing thousands of egg-shaped objects. As he inspects one, a creature springs out of it and attaches itself to his face. Rendered unconscious, Kane is taken back to the Nostromo by Dallas and Lambert. As acting senior officer aboard the ship, Ripley refuses to let them aboard, citing quarantine regulations, but Science Officer Ash violates protocol by letting them in through another hatch. Battle in Outer Space. Battle in Outer Space, (released in Japan as The Great Space War (宇宙大戦争, Uchū Daisensō?))

Battle in Outer Space

Is a 1959 Japanese Science Fiction film produced by Toho Studios. Directed by Ishirō Honda and featuring special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya, the film starred Ryo Ikebe, Koreya Senda and Yoshio Tsuchiya. The film is a loose sequel to The Mysterians (1957), jumping ahead several years to 1965, when Etsuko Shiraishi and Dr. Adachi, among others, are now heavily involved in the United Nations Space Research Center in Tokyo. Rather than have the Mysterians return to Earth for this sequel, a new, more sinister race was created: The Natal, diminutive and aggressive beings who wield powerful anti-gravity weapons and mind-control devices.

Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women. Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women is a 1968 science fiction film directed by Peter Bogdanovich.

Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women

Ikarie XB-1. Ikarie XB-1 is a 1963 Czechoslovak science fiction film directed by Jindřich Polák. Destination Moon (film)