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Atmosphere of the Moon. At sunrise and sunset many Apollo crews saw glows and light rays.[1] This Apollo 17 sketch depicts the mysterious twilight rays. Sources[edit] Losses[edit] Gases can either: be re-implanted into the regolith as a result of the Moon's gravity;escape the Moon entirely if the particle is moving at or above the lunar escape velocity of 2.38 km/s (1.48 mi/s);be lost to space either by solar radiation pressure or, if the gases are ionized, by being swept away in the solar wind's magnetic field.

Composition[edit] What little atmosphere the Moon has consists of some unusual gases, including sodium and potassium, which are not found in the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, or Venus. The average daytime abundances of the elements known to be present in the lunar atmosphere, in atoms per cubic centimeter, are as follows: Argon: 20,000–100,000[8]Helium: 5,000–30,000[8]Neon: up to 20,000[8][9]Sodium: 70Potassium: 17Hydrogen: fewer than 17 Ancient atmosphere[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Inferior and superior planets. In the 16th century, the terms were modified by Copernicus, who rejected Ptolemy's geocentric model, to distinguish a planet's orbit's size in relation to the Earth's.[2] The terms are sometimes used more generally: for instance, the Earth is an inferior planet as seen from Mars.

This classification is different from the terms inner and outer planet, which designate those planets which lie inside the asteroid belt and those that lie outside it, respectively. "Inferior planet" is also different from minor planet or dwarf planet. Jump up ^ Lakatos, Imre; Worrall, John; Currie, Gregory (1980). Worrall, John; Currie, Gregory, ed. The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. Cambridge University Press. p. 186. Colonization of Venus. The colonization of Venus has been a subject of many works of science fiction since before the dawn of spaceflight, and is still discussed from both a fictional and a scientific standpoint. However, with the discovery of Venus' extremely hostile surface environment, attention has largely shifted towards the colonization of the Moon and Mars instead. Reasons for colonization[edit] Space colonization is a step beyond space exploration, and implies the permanent or long-term presence of humans in an environment outside Earth.

Colonization of space is claimed to be the best way to ensure the survival of humans as a species.[1] Other reasons for colonizing space include economic interests, long-term scientific research best carried out by humans as opposed to robotic probes, and sheer curiosity. Venus is the second largest terrestrial planet and Earth's closest neighbour, which makes it a potential target. Advantages[edit] Scale representations of Venus and the Earth shown next to each other. Mars ocean hypothesis. An artist's impression of ancient Mars and its oceans based on geological data The blue region of low topography in the Martian northern hemisphere is hypothesized to be the site of a primordial ocean of liquid water.[1] History of observational evidence[edit] Features shown by the Viking orbiters in 1976, revealed two possible ancient shorelines near the pole, Arabia and Deuteronilus, each thousands of kilometers long.[6] Several physical features in the present geography of Mars suggest the past existence of a primordial ocean.

Networks of gullies that merge into larger channels imply erosion by a liquid agent, and resemble ancient riverbeds on Earth. Enormous channels, 25 km wide and several hundred meters deep, appear to direct flow from underground aquifers in the Southern uplands into the Northern plains.[5] Much of the northern hemisphere of Mars is located at a significantly lower elevation than the rest of the planet (the Martian dichotomy), and is unusually flat. Chemistry[edit] Javelin argument. The javelin argument is an ancient logical argument in support of the cosmological idea that space, or the universe, must be infinite: As to space, I need but ask you, how can that be bounded?

For whatever bounds, it that thing must itself be bounded likewise; and to this bounding thing there must be a bound again, and so on for ever and ever throughout all immensity. Suppose, however, for a moment, all existing space to be bounded, and that a man runs forward to the uttermost borders, and stands upon the last verge of things, and then hurls forward a winged javelin,— suppose you that the dart, when hurled by the vivid force, shall take its way to the point the darter aimed at, or that something will take its stand in the path of its flight, and arrest it?

For one or other of these things must happen. There is a dilemma here that you never can escape from.[1] This argument was used to support the Epicurean thesis about the universe. Garrett Reisman. Garrett Erin Reisman (born February 10, 1968) is an American engineer and former NASA astronaut. He was a backup crew member for Expedition 15 and joined Expedition 16 aboard the International Space Station for a short time before becoming a member of Expedition 17.

He returned to Earth on June 14, 2008 on board STS-124 on Space Shuttle Discovery. He was a member of the STS-132 mission that traveled to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis from May 14 to 26, 2010. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Reisman was born in Morristown, New Jersey and is a 1986 graduate of Parsippany High School,[1] a 1991 graduate of the Jerome Fisher Program in Management and Technology at the University of Pennsylvania,[2] and received his Masters and Doctorate degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 1992 and 1997, respectively.[3] NASA career[edit] Garrett Reisman on the mid-deck of Space Shuttle Endeavour during STS-123. Post-NASA career[edit] Stranded: Náufragos. Stranded is a 2001 film about a fictional first manned mission to Mars. It stars Vincent Gallo and Maria de Medeiros, and was directed by Spanish filmmaker and actress María Lidón (credited in the English version of the movie as "Luna"), with screenplay by Spanish science fiction author Juan Miguel Aguilera.

Lidón won the "Grand Prize of European Fantasy Film in Silver", and Gallo and de Medeiros were named best actors at the 2002 Fantafestival in Rome.[2] Plot[edit] The film is set in 2020 and begins as the Ares spacecraft enters orbit around Mars. Andre Vishniac commands an international crew of seven astronauts. They try to land, but the small landing craft crashes as a result of an altimeter error. It will take 26 months for Lowell to send a rescue ship from Earth, but the stranded landing crew have supplies for less than a year and need to find ways to extend the life support system. Cast[edit] Filming locations[edit] Weird Science[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Scientific research on the International Space Station. ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter, STS-116 mission specialist, works with the Passive Observatories for Experimental Microbial Systems in Micro-G (POEMS) payload in the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI) inside the Destiny laboratory.

Scientific Research on the International Space Station is a collection of experiments that require one or more of the unusual conditions present in low Earth orbit. The primary fields of research include human research, space medicine, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and meteorology.[1][2][3] The 2005 NASA Authorization Act designated the American segment of the International Space Station as a national laboratory with the goal of increasing the use of the ISS by other federal agencies and the private sector.[4] Research on the ISS improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body. Subjects currently under study include muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. ISS Science Facilities[edit] [edit] Aliens (film) Aliens' action-adventure tone was in contrast to the horror motifs of the original Alien.

Following the success of The Terminator (1984), which helped establish Cameron as a major action director,[5] 20th Century Fox greenlit Aliens with a budget of approximately $18 million. It was filmed in England at Pinewood Studios and at a decommissioned power plant in Acton, London. Aliens grossed $86 million at the U.S. box office during its 1986 theatrical release and $131 million worldwide.[6] The movie was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including a Best Actress nomination for Sigourney Weaver. It won in the categories of Sound Effects Editing and Visual Effects. It won eight Saturn Awards, including Best Science Fiction Film, Best Actress for Weaver and Best Direction and Best Writing for Cameron.

Ellen Ripley in the Caterpillar P-5000 Powered Work Loader[7] Ripley and an injured Hicks reach Bishop and the second dropship, but Ripley refuses to leave Newt behind. Alien (film) Meanwhile on the Nostromo, Warrant Officer Ripley determines that the transmission is actually some type of warning rather than a distress signal. In the alien ship, Kane discovers a chamber containing thousands of egg-shaped objects. As he inspects one, a creature springs out of it and attaches itself to his face. Rendered unconscious, Kane is taken back to the Nostromo by Dallas and Lambert. As acting senior officer aboard the ship, Ripley refuses to let them aboard, citing quarantine regulations, but Science Officer Ash violates protocol by letting them in through another hatch. The crew are unable to remove the creature from Kane's face, as its grip is strong and its blood is an extremely corrosive acid.

However, the creature eventually lets go and crawls around the ship. Soon enough, Kane awakens with some memory loss but no other apparent symptoms. Ripley, Lambert and Parker agree to set the Nostromo to self-destruct and escape in the shuttle. Screenwriter Dan O'Bannon. Battle in Outer Space. Battle in Outer Space, (released in Japan as The Great Space War (宇宙大戦争, Uchū Daisensō?)) Is a 1959 Japanese Science Fiction film produced by Toho Studios. Directed by Ishirō Honda and featuring special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya, the film starred Ryo Ikebe, Koreya Senda and Yoshio Tsuchiya. The film is a loose sequel to The Mysterians (1957), jumping ahead several years to 1965, when Etsuko Shiraishi and Dr. Adachi, among others, are now heavily involved in the United Nations Space Research Center in Tokyo. Rather than have the Mysterians return to Earth for this sequel, a new, more sinister race was created: The Natal, diminutive and aggressive beings who wield powerful anti-gravity weapons and mind-control devices.

The film was released theatrically in the United States in the Summer of 1960 by Columbia Pictures Plot[edit] In 1965, a series of mysterious and devastating incidents are happening on Earth. Dr. Dr. Back on Earth, the world prepares for a final conflict against the Natal. Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women. Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women is a 1968 science fiction film directed by Peter Bogdanovich. The film is an adapted version of Curtis Harrington's Voyage to the Prehistoric Planet, which in turn is adapted from the Russian 1962 feature Planeta Bur by Pavel Klushantsev.

No footage from Planeta Bur appears in Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women that did not appear in Voyage to the Prehistoric Planet, and the dubbing is the same.[1] In the United States, this film is in the public domain. Plot[edit] Astronauts landing on Venus encounter dangerous creatures and almost meet sexy Venusian women. Cast[edit] Mamie Van Doren as MoanaMary Marr as VerbaPaige Lee as TwylaGennadi Vernov as Astronaut Andre FreneauMargot Hartman as MayawayIrene Orton as MeriamaPam Helton as WearieFrankie Smith as Woman of Venus Production[edit] The movie was known as Gill Men at one stage.

It was a Russian science-fiction film that Roger had called Storm Clouds Of Venus that he had dubbed into English. Ikarie XB-1. Ikarie XB-1 is a 1963 Czechoslovak science fiction film directed by Jindřich Polák. It was edited and dubbed into English for release in the USA, where it is known by its alternate title, Voyage to the End of the Universe. Synopsis[edit] In the year 2163 the starship Ikarie XB-1 (Ikarus XB-1) is sent to the mysterious "White Planet" orbiting the star Alpha Centauri. Travelling at near-light speed, the journey takes around 28 months for the astronauts, although the effects of relativity mean that 15 years will have elapsed on Earth by the time they reach their destination.

During the flight the 40-strong multinational crew must adjust to life in space, as well as dealing with various hazards they encounter, including a derelict 20th century spaceship armed with nuclear weapons, a deadly radioactive "dark star" and the mental breakdown of one of the crew, who threatens to destroy the spacecraft. Production[edit] Release[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Destination Moon (film)