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Surrealism

Surrealism
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality." Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself and/or an idea/concept.[1] Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. Founding of the movement[edit] The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects. Surrealist Manifesto[edit] Expansion[edit]

Salvador Dalí Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marqués de Dalí de Pubol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), known as Salvador Dalí (/ˈdɑːli/;[1] Catalan: [səɫβəˈðo ðəˈɫi]), was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter and sculptor born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters.[2][3] His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything that is gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes"[4] to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descended from the Moors. Dalí was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. Biography[edit]

Cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the sciences, and philosophies. Historically, different nations or regions of the world have gone through their own independent sequence of movements in culture, but as world communications have accelerated this geographical distinction has become less distinct. When cultural movements go through revolutions from one to the next, genres tend to get attacked and mixed up, and often new genres are generated and old ones fade. These changes are often reactions against the prior cultural form, which typically has grown stale and repetitive. There is continual argument over the precise definition of each of these periods, and one historian might group them differently, or choose different names or descriptions. This current article covers western, notably European and American cultural movements. Cultural movements[edit] See: Romanesque architecture — Ottonian Art

Edvard Munch Edvard Munch (Norwegian: [ˈɛdvɑʈ muŋk] ( Life[edit] Childhood[edit] Edvard Munch was born in a rustic farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, Norway, to Laura Catherine Bjølstad and Christian Munch, the son of a priest. The family moved to Christiania (now Oslo) in 1864 when Christian Munch was appointed medical officer at Akershus Fortress. Christian's positive behavior toward his children was overshadowed by his morbid pietism. Christian Munch's military pay was very low, and his attempts at developing a private side practice failed, keeping his family in perennial poverty.[2] They moved frequently from one sordid flat to another. Studies and influences[edit] Self Portrait with Skeleton Arm, 1895 In 1879, Munch enrolled in a technical college to study engineering, where he excelled in physics, chemistry, and math. After numerous experiments, Munch concluded that the Impressionist idiom did not allow sufficient expression. Paris[edit] Berlin[edit] Edvard Munch 1902 The Scream[edit]

Dada Dada (/ˈdɑːdɑː/) or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Dada in Zurich, Switzerland, began in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter, but the height of New York Dada was the year before, in 1915.[1] The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 when he created his first readymades.[2] Dada, in addition to being anti-war, had political affinities with the radical left and was also anti-bourgeois.[3] Francis Picabia, Dame! Illustration for the cover of the periodical Dadaphone, n. 7, Paris, March 1920 Overview[edit] Francis Picabia, (left) Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait, 1 July 1915; (center) Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité, 5 July 1915: (right) J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in Europe and North America. To quote Dona Budd's The Language of Art Knowledge, Zurich[edit]

Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch: [ˈvɪnsɛnt ˈʋɪləm vɑn ˈɣɔx] ( );[note 1] 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Post-Impressionist painter of Dutch origin whose work—notable for its rough beauty, emotional honesty, and bold color—had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. After years of painful anxiety and frequent bouts of mental illness,[1][2] he died aged 37 from a gunshot wound, generally accepted to be self-inflicted (although no gun was ever found).[3][note 2] Letters Vincent c. 1873 aged 19. Although many are undated, art historians have generally been able to put them in chronological order. Biography Early life Vincent c. 1866, approx. age 13 As a child, Vincent was serious, silent, and thoughtful. The house "Holme Court" in Isleworth, where Van Gogh stayed in 1876 [23][24] Van Gogh returned to England for unpaid work as a supply teacher in a small boarding school overlooking the harbor in Ramsgate, where he made sketches of the view. Etten, Drenthe and The Hague Emerging artist

Modernism Hans Hofmann, "The Gate", 1959–1960, collection: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Hofmann was renowned not only as an artist but also as a teacher of art, and a modernist theorist both in his native Germany and later in the U.S. During the 1930s in New York and California he introduced Modernism and modernist theories to a new generation of American artists. Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. History[edit] Beginnings: the 19th century[edit] According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view […] the modernists, carrying the torch of romanticism".[5][6][7] While J. However, the Industrial Revolution continued.

Antoni Gaudí Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (Catalan pronunciation: [ənˈtɔni ɣəwˈði]; 25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Spanish Catalan architect from Reus, who was the figurehead of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works reflect his highly individual and distinctive style and are largely concentrated in Barcelona, notably his magnum opus, the Sagrada Família. Much of Gaudí's work was marked by his big passions in life: architecture, nature, religion.[3] Gaudí studied every detail of his creations, integrating into his architecture a series of crafts in which he was skilled: ceramics, stained glass, wrought ironwork forging and carpentry. After a few years, under the influence of neo-Gothic art and Oriental techniques, Gaudí became part of the Modernista movement which was reaching its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Gaudí's work enjoys widespread international appeal and many studies are devoted to understanding his architecture. Biography[edit] Birth, childhood and studies[edit]

Postmodern art Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as Intermedia, Installation art, Conceptual Art and Multimedia, particularly involving video are described as postmodern. There are several characteristics which lend art to being postmodern; these include bricolage, the use of words prominently as the central artistic element, collage, simplification, appropriation, performance art, the recycling of past styles and themes in a modern-day context, as well as the break-up of the barrier between fine and high arts and low art and popular culture.[1][2] Use of the term[edit] The predominant term for art produced since the 1950s is "contemporary art". As well as describing certain tendencies of contemporary art, postmodern has also been used to denote a phase of modern art. As with all uses of the term postmodern there are critics of its application. Dada[edit]

Max Ernst Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Max Ernst was born in Brühl, near Cologne, the third of nine children of a middle-class Catholic family. His father Philipp was a teacher of the deaf and an amateur painter, a devout Christian and a strict disciplinarian. In 1914 Ernst met Hans Arp in Cologne. Dada and surrealism[edit] Ernst was demobilized in 1918 and returned to Cologne. Ernst and Luise's son Ulrich 'Jimmy' Ernst was born on 24 June 1920;[4] he also became a painter. Although apparently accepting the ménage à trois at first, Éluard eventually became more concerned about the affair. The next year he collaborated with Joan Miró on designs for Sergei Diaghilev. Ernst developed a fascination with birds that was prevalent in his work. World War II and later life[edit] L'Ange du Foyer, (1937) Selected works[edit]

Abstract expressionism Style[edit] Technically, an important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, Max Ernst and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey, especially his "white writing" canvases, which, though generally not large in scale, anticipate the "all-over" look of Pollock's drip paintings. Mark Tobey, Canticle, 1954. Tobey, like Pollock, was known for his calligraphic style of allover compositions. Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. Art critics of the post–World War II era[edit] Barnett Newman, Onement 1, 1948. History[edit]

Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky, August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American modernist artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal. He produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, and he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Ray is also noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself.[1] Life and career[edit] Background and early life[edit] During his career as an artist, Man Ray allowed few details of his early life or family background to be known to the public. Man Ray's father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home. First artistic endeavors[edit] The Misunderstood (1938), collection of the Man Ray Estate Man Ray displayed artistic and mechanical abilities during childhood.

Roy Lichtenstein Roy Fox Lichtenstein (pronounced /ˈlɪktənˌstaɪn/; October 27, 1923 – September 29, 1997) was an American pop artist. During the 1960s, along with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, and James Rosenquist among others, he became a leading figure in the new art movement. His work defined the basic premise of pop art through parody.[2] Favoring the comic strip as his main inspiration, Lichtenstein produced hard-edged, precise compositions that documented while it parodied often in a tongue-in-cheek humorous manner. Whaam! Early years[edit] Career[edit] Cap de Barcelona, sculpture, mixed media, Barcelona Lichtenstein entered the graduate program at Ohio State and was hired as an art instructor, a post he held on and off for the next ten years. In 1951 Lichtenstein had his first solo exhibition at the Carlebach Gallery in New York.[1][17] He moved to Cleveland in the same year, where he remained for six years, although he frequently traveled back to New York. Rise to prominence[edit] Later work[edit]

Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha[1][2] (Czech: [ˈalfons ˈmuxa] ( ); 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), often known in English and French as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist,[3] known best for his distinct style. He produced many paintings, illustrations, advertisements, postcards, and designs. Early years[edit] Alphonse Maria Mucha was born in the town of Ivančice, Moravia (the present Czech Republic). Mucha moved to Paris in 1887, and continued his studies at Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi. Poster design by Mucha for Cycles Perfecta (1902) Marriage[edit] Mucha married Maruška (Marie/Maria) Chytilová on 10 June 1906, in Prague. Le Pater[edit] The Slav Epic[edit] A study of a man sitting 1891 Mucha spent many years working on what he considered his life's fine art masterpiece, The Slav Epic (Slovanská epopej), a series of twenty huge paintings depicting the history of the Czech and the Slavic people in general, bestowed to the city of Prague in 1928. Death[edit]

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