Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking. Thinking Traps. Critical Thinking Model 1. To Analyze Thinking We Must Identify and Question its Elemental Structures Standard: Clarityunderstandable, the meaning can be grasped Could you elaborate further?
Could you give me an example? Could you illustrate what you mean? Standard: Accuracyfree from errors or distortions, true How could we check on that? Standard: Precisionexact to the necessary level of detail Could you be more specific? Standard: Relevancerelating to the matter at hand How does that relate to the problem? Standard: Depthcontaining complexities and multiple interrelationships What factors make this a difficult problem? Standard: Breadthencompassing multiple viewpoints Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Scepticisme scientifique. Esprit critique. Multiple Intelligences. Debate. Responsible thinking web sites. Critical Thinking sites: These sites discuss critical thinking and common errors in reasoning.
The Critical Thinking Community While perhaps the most widely referenced site on critical thinking, the style of the above site is far too dry and academic for my taste. Wikipedia entries for logical fallacies and cognitive biases: Fallacies Biases. For the Love of Wisdom – A Blog of Freethought & Philosophy. Guida pratica al pensiero – Hic Rhodus. Il quadro generale Qualunque cosa facciamo, dietro c’è un pensiero, più o meno consapevole.
Qualunque cosa diciamo c’è dietro un pensiero, purtroppo anche qui: non sempre consapevole. La nostra vita è prima pensata poi agita. Critical Thinking: Where to Begin. Our Conception of Critical Thinking...
There are many ways to articulate the concept of critical thinking, yet every substantive conception must contain certain core elements. Consider these brief conceptualizations of critical thinking... "Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. How to improve your Critical Thinking skills: Interview with Dr. Gerald Nosich – Life Lessons. In this article I interview an expert on Critical Thinking, Dr.
Gerald Nosich from the Foundation for Critical Thinking, who has been teaching Critical Thinking since 1977 to find out how we can improve our Critical Thinking skills. In this article you will learn: Let’s start at the beginning… Michael: What is Critical thinking? Dr. One it’s reflective. How to Think Critically. Fake News. Ladder of Inference. Les niveaux de preuve. The Information Literacy User’s Guide: An Open, Online Textbook. Introduction In 2010, a textbook being used in fourth grade classrooms in Virginia became big news for all the wrong reasons.
The book, Our Virginia by Joy Masoff, had caught the attention of a parent who was helping her child do her homework, according to an article in The Washington Post. Carol Sheriff was a historian for the College of William and Mary and as she worked with her daughter, she began to notice some glaring historical errors, not the least of which was a passage which described how thousands of African Americans fought for the South during the Civil War.
Esprit critique. Présenté à la fois comme un enjeu et une condition de la citoyenneté, le développement de l'esprit critique est de plus en plus souvent mentionné comme objectif de formation : « Le développement de l'esprit critique est au centre de la mission assignée au système éducatif français. To think critically, you have to be both analytical and motivated. In a world where accusations of "fake news" are thrown around essentially at random, critical thinking would seem to be a must.
But this is also a world where the Moon landings are viewed as a conspiracy and people voice serious doubts about the Earth's roundness. Critical thinking appears to be in short supply at a time we desperately need it. Defining Critical Thinking. It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of reference.
Critical thinking — in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes — is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking. Critical thinking can be seen as having two components: 1) a set of information and belief generating and processing skills, and 2) the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behavior.
Critical thinking varies according to the motivation underlying it. Rhetorical Triangle. Deductive and Inductive Arguments A deductive argument is an argument that is intended by the arguer to be (deductively) valid, that is, to provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion provided that the argument's premises (assumptions) are true.
This point can be expressed also by saying that, in a deductive argument, the premises are intended to provide such strong support for the conclusion that, if the premises are true, then it would be impossible for the conclusion to be false. An argument in which the premises do succeed in guaranteeing the conclusion is called a (deductively) valid argument. If a valid argument has true premises, then the argument is said to be sound. Reasoning Resources. While people generally think of an argument as a fight, perhaps involving the hurling of small appliances, this is not the case-at least as the term is used in philosophy.
In philosophy, an argument is a set of claims, one of which is supposed to be supported by the others. There are two types of claims in an argument. The first type of claim is the conclusion. This is the claim that is supposed to be supported by the premises. The Validity and Soundness of Deductive Arguments. Ne pas traiter l’autre de petite merde (vidéo) Know Your Sources.
When doing research you will come across a lot of information from different types of sources. How do you decide which source to use? From tweets to newspaper articles, this tool provides a brief description of each and breaks down 6 factors of what to consider when selecting a source. A platform for millions of very short messages on a variety of topics that enables brief dialogue between distinct groups of people across geographic, political, cultural and economic boundaries. An avenue for sharing both developed and unpolished ideas and interests with a niche community with relative ease. A collection of millions of educational, inspirational, eye-opening and entertaining videos that are shared rapidly and widely. A reporting and recording of cultural and political happenings that keeps the general public informed of daily events, sports, and current news. A book in which the information presented is supported by clearly identified sources. Total Number Published per Day.
Evaluating Internet Research Sources. Robert Harris Version Date: October 11, 2018 Previous: August 16, 2018, December 12, 2016; January 21, 2015, December 27, 2013; November 6, 2013; Nov. 22, 2010 and June 15, 2007 "The central work of life is interpretation. " --Proverb Introduction: The Diversity of Information Adopting a Skeptical (or Cautious) Attitude You might have heard of the term information warfare, the use of information as a weapon. Understand the Nature and Prevalence of Fake News It is essential to understand that some Web sites exist that present what is now being called fake news. Suggested Rules of Investigation for Unusual Claims. Types of Reasoning. Disciplines > Argument > Types of Reasoning Reasoning within an argument gives the rationale behind why one choice, for example should be selected over another. Types of reasoning include: Abduction: the process of creating explanatory hypotheses. Backwards Reasoning: Start from what you want and work back.
Theories about trust. Theories about memory. Theories about meaning. Teaching critical thinking. Benjamin Bloom (1956) created this taxonomy or classification system for categorizing "competencies" in educational settings, as defined by skills demonstrated by learner type or intelligence. This breakdown provides a useful, incremental framework of complexity in demonstrating mastery of a subject or topic.
The verbs include the skills that demonstrate each: Knowledge:To know something means to be able to remember or recall facts or bits of information, though one can "know" something without understanding it or being able to put it into a higher context. This process is illustrated by recall of sequences and lists, of events and dates; landmarks on a route; pictures and their graphic details; songs and lyrics; titles and names; even memorized definitions and explanations. It includes being able to remember to move a certain way, as for an athlete or dancer, or ritualized procedures for greeting and meeting people.
Curricular guides and resources: Historians Fallacies Toward A Logic Of Historical Thought : David Hackett Fischer. Bulles, biais et filtres informationnels. Focus 1 : Petit guide pratique des biais cognitifs à l’usage indispensable des dirigeants. 1) L’escalade de l’engagement Une illustration tirée de la vie de tous les jours : « Vous êtes dans le métro et le conducteur annonce que le trafic est momentanément interrompu à cause d’un incident technique sur la ligne. Aucune précision n’est apportée sur le temps que devrait durer l’intervention. Quinze minutes plus tard, la situation n’ayant toujours pas évolué et aucune information complémentaire n’ayant été communiquée, vous hésitez : vous pourriez décider d’emprunter un autre trajet, plus long en temps normal mais qui pourrait se révéler plus rapide ce matin si le trafic restait bloqué pendant encore de longues minutes ; mais vous avez déjà passé 1/4 d'heure à attendre dans cette rame, et descendre maintenant vous exposerait au risque que le trafic reprenne quelques minutes seulement après avoir décidé d’emprunter le chemin alternatif. 2) Le biais de disponibilité.
Focus 2 : Ces biais qui nous gouvernent… Quelques astuces pour s’en prémunir. Nous sommes tous soumis à des biais… Venez-vous en convaincre à travers 5 "mises en situation", dans lesquelles chacun d’entre vous devrait se reconnaître ! Et venez confronter vos propres process à certaines bonnes pratiques, dont la mise en application pourrait vous assurer une plus grande maîtrise du processus décisionnel.1 Vous vous reconnaissez dans l’une des situations suivantes… ? Argument Mapping. Argument mapping is producing "boxes and arrows" diagrams of reasoning, especially complex arguments and debates. Argument mapping improves our ability to articulate, comprehend and communicate reasoning, thereby promoting critical thinking. Argument Mapping Tutorials from AusthinkArgument mapping is using graphical methods to display the structure of reasoning and argumentation. The technique is essential for advanced critical thinking.
ARGUMENT MAPPING. The Ideological Turing Test: How to Be Less Wrong – The Polymath Project. Here’s something that took me half a decade to figure out: It is really, really, really hard to be right. If you want to be right all the time, go be an accountant. The rest of us — paleontologists, internet dating specialists, serial entrepreneurs (read: homeless millenials), policymakers, and scholars of Japanese religions — will just have to get used to being wrong. There’s a strange paradox about wrongness: We go about our lives feeling like we’re right, but — in reality — we spend most of our lives being wrong.
Everyone is Wrong… Except for Me. Croire, savoir, prouver. Synthèse. The Mistake You Make in Every Political Argument. We’ve all been sufficiently frustrated by the gap between the values someone espouses and the policies they support that we’ve gotten into political arguments to help them see their error. Perhaps, if we’re more honest about our own motivation, we just reacted to get rid of that visceral dissonant feeling that “something that wrong just can’t be allowed to stand.” How to Disagree. March 2008 The web is turning writing into a conversation. Twenty years ago, writers wrote and readers read. The web lets readers respond, and increasingly they do—in comment threads, on forums, and in their own blog posts.
Many who respond to something disagree with it. How Can We Talk? About What Is Essential? Inquiry Mind-set, HOTS, Critical Thinking/Questioning. How biased is your news source? You probably won’t agree with this chart. Are we even aware of our biases anymore? If you look at this chart and are convinced your “extreme” source belongs in the middle, you just might be part of the problem plaguing America today. You Are Not So Smart.
Algo_study. 5 tips to improve your critical thinking - Samantha Agoos. Information literacy skills. Analfabetismo applicativo. La parola di un esperto vale più di quella degli altri. People who think their opinions are superior to others are most prone to overestimating their relevant knowledge and ignoring chances to learn more. People in higher social class have an exaggerated belief that they are better than others. Information Literacy. The Trick To Thinking Clearer and Better – Personal Growth.
How to get Smarter: A guide to critical thinking, cognitive biases, and logical fallacies. Franca D'Agostini - Diritti aletici. Critical Thinking: Where to Begin. How to Train Your Mind to Think Critically and Form Your Own Opinions. Why “Both Sides” of a Story Aren’t Enough. How to Teach Critical Thinking. Yes, Your Opinion Can Be Wrong. 5 Common Mental Errors That Sway You From Making Good Decisions - James Clear - Pocket.
Philosophy and Logic. List of paradoxes. Some paradoxes - an anthology. Logical Paradoxes. Polanyi’s paradox. 249 Bloom's Taxonomy Verbs For Critical Thinking. ARGOMENTARE. Pensierocritico.eu. Pensiero Critico: strumenti e risorse sull'argomentare - come convincere gli altri che abbiamo ragione? Argomentare.it. Che cos'è un testo argomentativo e le tecniche argomentative. Modello di Toulmin (sintesi) How to Structure a Theory of Knowledge (TOK) Presentation. LOGIC AND WRITING. Logic. Reason and validity. Argument Mapping. ARGUMENT MAPPING.
A Code of Conduct for Effective Rational Discussion — LimbicNutrition. Induzione, deduzione, abduzione. Logica e teoria dell'argomentazione. Adelino Cattani - Teoria e pratica dell'argomentazione. Roberta Rigo - Inventare, argomentare. Démarche scientifique, sciences et EMI. Carl Sagan Presents His "Baloney Detection Kit": 8 Tools for Skeptical Thinking. The Ethical Skeptic. CICAP - HomePage. Becoming a Critic Of Your Thinking. Just Facts. Mental Models I Find Repeatedly Useful – Medium. 5 tips to improve your critical thinking - Samantha Agoos. Skim reading is the new normal. The effect on society is profound. NoBeliefs.com (Freethinkers) RationalWiki.