Semiotica Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. La semiotica (dal termine greco σημεῖον semeion, che significa "segno") è la disciplina che studia i segni e il modo in cui questi abbiano un senso (significazione). Considerato che il segno è in generale "qualcosa che rinvia a qualcos'altro" (per i filosofi medievali "aliquid stat pro aliquo") possiamo dire che la semiotica è la disciplina che studia i fenomeni di significazione e di comunicazione. Per significazione infatti si intende ogni relazione che lega qualcosa di materialmente presente a qualcos'altro di assente (la luce rossa del semaforo significa, o sta per, "stop"). "Non solo essa spiega i fatti comunicativi, ma permette inoltre di intervenire e di modificarli nel dettaglio con una precisione che manca alle altre discipline. Le origini[modifica | modifica sorgente] Le riflessioni sul segno hanno una lunga tradizione che percorre l'intera storia della filosofia occidentale. La semiotica nel XX secolo[modifica | modifica sorgente] Umberto Eco
Logical Fallacies and How to Spot Them Logical Fallacies and How to Spot Them In the Evolution vs. Creationism debate, it is important to be able to spot all the logical fallacies that Creationists tend to throw around. This essay covers many bare essentials of logical thinking, as well as ways to critically evaluate an argument. THE STRAWMAN ATTACK: The strawman is, perhaps, the most heavily-employed tactic used by Creationists. "Evolution is a ridiculous theory! This is an example of a strawman attack. Spotting a strawman attack isn't that hard. Strawman attacks, once exposed for what they are, are not all that difficult to counter. THE FALSE DILEMMA FALLACY: The false dilemma is at the heart of the Creationist argument. "There are only two solutions for the question of how the Universe was created: the Big Bang, which says that the Universe was formed out of nothing from random chance, or Biblical Creation, which gives us a loving, awesome, caring God who wants us to... "Isaac Newton was a believer in Creation. No logic.
Guide to Philosophy on the Internet (Suber) Welcome to my collection of online philosophy resources. If you are stuck in a frame, click here to escape. If you are a frequent visitor, press reload or refresh on occasion to be sure that you are viewing the most recent version of the page, not the version cached on your hard drive from your last visit. I've marked recommended sites with a red star . Generally the starred sites are those I've found especially helpful for shortening the search for what one wants, as opposed to outstanding sites in themselves for which one ought to search. When the whole file loads, use the search command on your browser to find items by keyword. To register to receive an email announcement whenever this page is revised, see the bottom of this file. If speed is a problem, try one of the mirror sites in Germany (München, single-file version) or Italy (Bari, single-file version), or Italy (Bari, multi-file version). About this guide.
Les 'Principia Mathematica' de Bertrand Russell - Jalons pour l'histoire du temps présent Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) est l'un des philosophes occidentaux majeurs du XXe siècle. Sa production philosophique s'étend de 1898 (date de son premier ouvrage publié, sur Leibniz) jusqu'à la fin des années 1950. Par ailleurs, Russell fut, au-delà de ses travaux en philosophie pure, une figure publique importante. Son engagement politique fut précoce : son pacifisme le conduisit en prison au cours de la Première Guerre mondiale ; plus tard, il milita contre l'armement anti-nucléaire et contre la guerre du Vietnam dans les années 1960. Il fut aussi très contesté pour ses prises de position morales, en faveur du divorce et de l'amour libre. Mais tout cela ne doit pas faire oublier que sa contribution à la philosophie est absolument fondamentale. Tandis que les Principes des Mathématiques furent et restent un modèle d'analyse philosophique, les Principia Mathematica, eux, furent le point de départ de la logique mathématique moderne. Bibliographie :
Ludwig Wittgenstein 1. Biographical Sketch Wittgenstein was born on April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria, to a wealthy industrial family, well-situated in intellectual and cultural Viennese circles. In 1908 he began his studies in aeronautical engineering at Manchester University where his interest in the philosophy of pure mathematics led him to Frege. During his years in Cambridge, from 1911 to 1913, Wittgenstein conducted several conversations on philosophy and the foundations of logic with Russell, with whom he had an emotional and intense relationship, as well as with Moore and Keynes. In 1920 Wittgenstein, now divorced from philosophy (having, to his mind, solved all philosophical problems in the Tractatus), gave away his part of his family's fortune and pursued several ‘professions’ (gardener, teacher, architect, etc.) in and around Vienna. 2. 2.1 Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus was first published in German in 1921 and then translated—by C.K. 2.2 Sense and Nonsense 3.
The Eight Best Rage Comics Ever We’ve all been there: surfing the internet, trolling for some cheap LULz, and there we find ourselves: face to face with he-lair-i-ous rage comics. For your viewing pleasure, we have compiled the 8 best rage comics ever: Holla Back Job Interview Watching Other People Use Computers Changing The Wife’s Tire We Almost Died
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Le philosophe/mathématicien britanique, Bertrand Russel, explique pourquoi il ne croit pas aux religions Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3e comte Russell, né le 18 mai 1872 à Trellech (Monmouthshire), et mort le 2 février 1970 près de Penrhyndeudraeth (Pays de Galles), est un mathématicien, logicien, philosophe, épistémologue, homme politique et moraliste britannique. Russell est considéré comme l'un des plus importants philosophes du XXe siècle. Sa pensée peut être présentée selon trois grands axes. La logique et le fondement des mathématiques : Russell est, avec Frege, l'un des fondateurs de la logique contemporaine. Son ouvrage majeur, écrit avec Alfred North Whitehead, a pour titre Principia Mathematica. À la suite des travaux d'axiomatisation de l'arithmétique de Peano, Russell a tenté d'appliquer ses propres travaux de logique à la question du fondement des mathématiques (cf. logicisme). Son œuvre, qui comprend également des romans et des nouvelles, fut couronnée par le prix Nobel de littérature en 1950, en particulier pour son engagement humaniste et comme libre penseur.
The Turing Test First published Wed Apr 9, 2003; substantive revision Wed Jan 26, 2011 The phrase “The Turing Test” is most properly used to refer to a proposal made by Turing (1950) as a way of dealing with the question whether machines can think. According to Turing, the question whether machines can think is itself “too meaningless” to deserve discussion (442). The phrase “The Turing Test” is sometimes used more generally to refer to some kinds of behavioural tests for the presence of mind, or thought, or intelligence in putatively minded entities. If there were machines which bore a resemblance to our bodies and imitated our actions as closely as possible for all practical purposes, we should still have two very certain means of recognizing that they were not real men. The phrase “The Turing Test” is also sometimes used to refer to certain kinds of purely behavioural allegedly logically sufficient conditions for the presence of mind, or thought, or intelligence, in putatively minded entities. 1.
SCHOPENHAUER'S 38 STRATAGEMS, OR 38 WAYS TO WIN AN ARGUMENT Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), was a brilliant German philosopher. These 38 Stratagems are excerpts from "The Art of Controversy", first translated into English and published in 1896. Carry your opponent's proposition beyond its natural limits; exaggerate it. The more general your opponent's statement becomes, the more objections you can find against it. The more restricted and narrow his or her propositions remain, the easier they are to defend by him or her. (abstracted from the book:Numerical Lists You Never Knew or Once Knew and Probably Forget, by: John Boswell and Dan Starer) The Royal Institute of Philosophy -
The Chinese Room Argument 1. Overview Work in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has produced computer programs that can beat the world chess champion and defeat the best human players on the television quiz show Jeopardy. AI has also produced programs with which one can converse in natural language, including Apple's Siri. Our experience shows that playing chess or Jeopardy, and carrying on a conversation, are activities that require understanding and intelligence. Does computer prowess at challenging games and conversation then show that computers can understand and be intelligent? Searle argues that a good way to test a theory of mind, say a theory that holds that understanding can be created by doing such and such, is to imagine what it would be like to do what the theory says would create understanding. Imagine a native English speaker who knows no Chinese locked in a room full of boxes of Chinese symbols (a data base) together with a book of instructions for manipulating the symbols (the program). 2. 17. 3. 4.