10 Awesome Accidental Discoveries "Big things have small beginnings." All right, so that's actually a quote from Michael Fassbender in (Prometheus,) but nothing could be more true for radio astronomer duo Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias. The secret to discovering the prevailing theory to how the universe was made began with noise, like common radio static. In 1964, while working with the Holmdel antenna in New Jersey, the two astronomers discovered a background noise that left them perplexed. After ruling out possible interference from urban areas, nuclear tests, or pigeons living in the antenna, Wilson and Penzias came across an explanation with Robert Dicke's theory that radiation leftover from a universe-forming big bang would now act as background cosmic radiation. In fact, only 37 miles from the Holmdel antenna at Princeton University, Dicke and his team had been searching for this background radiation.
Little reactors may be best path to nuclear fusion - tech - 05 November 2014 IT ALWAYS seems to be 30 years away. Controlled nuclear fusion seems no closer to being realised now than it was when the idea was put forward in the 1950s. But fusion power stations might be closer than anyone suspected – if we think small. Bigger is better, or so goes the accepted wisdom with nuclear fusion. The massive international experiment ITER takes this to the extreme, employing a doughnut-shaped reaction chamber 20 metres across and up to 1000 staff. The price tag?
Observatory - Neanderthals Developed Tools on Their Own, Study Finds Julien Riel-Salvatore Neanderthals used tools that they had developed on their own. Until now, tools and ornaments used by Neanderthals were thought to have come about because of contact with the species that replaced them. But Dr. Riel-Salvatore said his paper in the Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory “counters the persistent idea about Neanderthals and shows that they were really able to innovate.” Dr.
China’s Solar Valley: biggest solar energy production base in world China is in the process of building the biggest solar energy production base in the world. Called "Solar Valley," it's the nation's answer to America's Silicon Valley. China is in the process of building what it calls "the biggest solar energy production base in the world." Ancient European hunter-gatherer was dark-skinned and blue-eyed caveman A recent analysis on DNA taken from the wisdom tooth of a 7,000-year-old human found in Spain in 2006 has overturned the popular image of light-skinned European hunter-gatherers. The study revealed that the individual had dark hair, the dark-skinned genes of an African, though scientists don’t know this exact skin tone, and blue-eyes, which were thought to have been brought to Europe by late-arriving farmers who invaded the continent more than 5,000 years ago. The new study, published in the journal Nature and led by Inigo Olalde of Spain’s Institut de Biologia Evolutiva in Barcelona, involved the first ever analysis of a pre-agricultural European genome and has given scientists an unprecedented glimpse of modern humans in Europe before the rise of farming. The skeletons of two Mesolithic men were discovered in 2006 in a cave system in the Cantabrian Mountains, near León in northwest Spain. The first unexpected finding was the fact the individual had dark skin. By April Holloway
Longer distance quantum teleportation achieved Physicists at the University of Geneva have succeeded in teleporting the quantum state of a photon to a crystal over 25 kilometers of optical fiber. The experiment, carried out in the laboratory of Professor Nicolas Gisin, constitutes a first, and simply pulverises the previous record of 6 kilometres achieved ten years ago by the same UNIGE team. Passing from light into matter, using teleportation of a photon to a crystal, shows that, in quantum physics, it is not the composition of a particle which is important, but rather its state, since this can exist and persist outside such extreme differences as those which distinguish light from matter.
Ancient "Fossil" Virus Shows Infection to Be Millions of Years Old Viruses can be thought of as hyperspeed shape-shifters, organisms that can adapt quickly to overcome barriers to infection. But recent research has been finding ancient traces of many viruses in animal genomes, DNA insertions that have likely been there for much longer than the viruses were previously thought to have existed at all. A new study describes evidence of a hepadnavirus (a virus group that includes hepatitis B, which infects humans as well as other mammals and ducks) hiding in the genomes of modern songbirds. By tracing back to these bird species' common ancestors, the researchers behind the new work estimate that this family of viruses has been around for at least 19 million years—and possibly as long as 40 million years—rather than the several thousand years researchers had estimated. The new estimate would slow the average rate of hepadnavirus mutation some 1,000-fold, wrote the researchers of the new the study, published online September 28 in PLoS Biology.
The Center for Science and Democracy The official opening of the Center will be marked by two launch events, one on each coast, featuring panel discussions with eminent scientists, journalists and public servants. Links to webcasts of the events are available on the launch events page . East Coast Readings - Bohmian-Mechanics.net This is part of a correspondence between Sheldon Goldstein and Steven Weinberg on Bohmian Mechanics. It is published here with the kind permission of both. From: firstname.lastname@example.org To: WEINBERG@utaphy.ph.utexas.edu Subject: NYRB Date: Sun, Sep 22 1996, 17:14:44 Dear Professor Weinberg, In your recent response in the NYRB, you ask George Levine, my colleague here at Rutgers, to "suppose that physicists were to announce the discovery that, beneath the apparently quantum mechanical appearance of atoms, there lies a more fundamental substructure of fields and particles that behave according to the rules of plain old classical mechanics." I agree with your point that this should make little difference to our views about culture or philosophy.
Neanderthals Had Feelings, Too For decades, Neanderthal was cultural shorthand for primitive. Our closest non-living relatives were caricatured as lumbering, slope-browed simpletons unable to keep pace with nimble, quick-witted Homo sapiens. However, anthropologists have found evidence in recent years suggesting considerable Neanderthal sophistication, and not only in tool-making and hunting, but in their ability to feel.